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Strengthening the capacity of the public health workforce in support of the essential public health functions and the Millennium Development Goals. Consultation with experts, San Jose, Costa Rica, 16-18 August 2005.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, Health Systems Strengthening Area, Human Resources for Health Unit, 2006 Dec. 50 p. (HR Series No. 45; USAID Award No. LAC-G-00-04-00002-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADJ-697)The main objective of this Consultation is to generate social recognition for the improvement and protection of human resources and the development of the health systems and well being of the populations of the Region of the Americas. There is no clear guiding principle in the conceptualization of human resources in health, or about its relationship to the PHWF. Human resources in health are currently facing a serious crisis, and public health should play a leading role in strengthening the capacities of this key resource in the Region. The causes and the magnitude of the problem are reflected in the lack of certain categories of personnel, the inequitable distribution of resources within countries, and institutional planning, management and education of these resources that are de-contextualized and focused on technical aspects. These considerations call for this presentation of the objectives of the Consultation to be accompanied by a recognition that learning to work together is not easy, but that this is precisely what is needed, i.e. the creation of strong partnerships, and the fact that public health work should be conceived in terms of cooperation in this area. (excerpt)
Education Sector Global HIV and AIDS Readiness Survey, 2004: policy implications for education and development. An integration of perspectives from ministries of education and civil society organizations.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006. 64 p.This report documents the outcomes of the first international survey of education sector readiness to manage and mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS. Ministries of education (MoEs) in 71 countries and civil society organizations in 18 countries were interviewed, in person and electronically, in separate research processes. Both surveys were conducted in 2004 on behalf of the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education. The Global Readiness Survey (GRS) of 71 MoEs was conducted by the Mobile Task Team (MTT) on the Impact of HIV and AIDS on Education, and the Civil Society Survey (CSS) of 18 civil society country interactions was conducted by the Global Campaign for Education (GCE). It should be noted that the GRS research process involved the completion of the questionnaire by an internal committee of senior MoE officials convened for this purpose, independent of an external researcher. Thus the process generated what might be described as 'self-reported information' rather than data in a conventional sense; while this may have its limitations, it nevertheless provides an important insight into the internal perceptions and assumptions of the MoEs involved. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2003 Aug. 3 p.Still reaping the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis, Indonesia has in recent years struggled with numerous difficulties ranging from social unrest, political instability, and ethnic and sectarian violence to a decline in access to health care and other public services. More recent events, including the bomb blast in Jakarta — which followed other deadly bombings in 2002 — have increased fears that the sprawling archipelago may be facing new political and population pressures. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2001. vii, 32 p. (World Bank Policy Research Report)This conclusion presents an important challenge to us in the development community. What types of policies and strategies promote gender equality and foster more effective development? This report examines extensive evidence on the effects of institutional reforms, economic policies, and active policy measures to promote greater equality between women and men. The evidence sends a second important message: policymakers have a number of policy instruments to promote gender equality and development effectiveness. (excerpt)
Encounter. 2000 Jul-Aug; 3(4):38-52.Accordingly, the broad objective of this paper is twofold (1) To assess the state of progress of GUI country with emphasis on demography, economy and society. (2) To examine the challenges the country is likely to face in coming years. (excerpt)
Pretoria, South Africa, Dept. of National Health and Population Development, Council for Population Development, 1991 Jun. 21 p.This booklet presents 1987 data on global population growth estimates and reiterates some of the main points of the Amsterdam Declaration adopted at the International Forum on Population in the 21st Century. These resolutions recognized mankind's responsibility to the future; acknowledged the link between population, resources, and the environment; expressed concern about rapid growth, especially in the developing world; recognized the central role of women in the development process; and defined the goal of development as improvement in the quality of life. The specter of unrelenting population growth is then considered from the point of view of South Africa, which has an annual growth rate of 2% and a population doubling time of 32 years. The booklet then describes South Africa's Population Development Programme, which was instituted in 1984 to maintain a balance between growth and subsistence resources. Each aspect of the program (education, primary health care, job creation, manpower development, the role of women, rural development, and housing) is then discussed in detail with important concepts defined and the ways in which organizations and individuals can contribute to the realization of the goals delineated.
National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.
[Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. , 64 p.Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
In: Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Innovative Techniques for Population Censuses and Large-Scale Demographic Surveys, The Hague, 22-26 April 1996, [compiled by] Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. The Hague, Netherlands, NIDI, 1996. 261-8.Measures must be taken to properly plan the year 2000 round of population and housing censuses. Enough time remains to propose questions which will improve the possibility of obtaining information on some population characteristics. However, collecting accurate data is only the first step in the process of census or survey taking. In order for a census to be useful, census data must be processed immediately and quickly disseminated and analyzed. Most of the programs that national and international agencies are implementing throughout the world will largely benefit the upcoming 2000 round of censuses, but only if questions are properly formulated and data quickly processed, disseminated, and analyzed. The following topics, mostly proposed by the UN, should be included in census questionnaires for most developing and some developed countries: disability, education, countries with educational registration systems, countries without educational registration systems, family structure and housing characteristics, fertility, labor force, internal and international migration, morbidity, mortality, and the special case of mortality and fertility.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. , 96 p.A worldwide educational campaign has been launched in response to the discouraging results of the 1990 appraisal of implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000. As part of that campaign, this book uses statistical data compiled by the UN to describe the obstacles faced by women attempting to achieve equality in political participation and decision making; advancement in education, employment, and health; and participation in the peace process. The objective of this book is to raise the awareness of these issues among governments, nongovernmental organizations, educational institutions, the private sector, and individuals. Each of the first six chapters discusses one area of women's lives and ends by delivering a series of challenges to be met by the year 2000. Chapter 1 discusses discrimination against women (its roots; the lag between theoretical and practical advances; sex stereotypes; and discrimination in marriage, the family, and society) as well as its legal remedies. Chapter 2 defines women's health as a vital prerequisite to equality and covers such topics as the global health boom; women as primary health care providers; clean water, sanitation, and nutrition; the effects of economic crisis; maternal mortality; fertility and family planning; increasing malnutrition; AIDS; genital mutilation; and son preference. Chapter 3 looks at women's education as a key to empowerment and focuses on illiteracy, the effects of the economic crisis on education, and the special problems of rural women. Chapter 4 considers aspects related to acknowledgment of women's work such as the multiple roles of women, accounting for women's economic activity, households headed by women, women in agriculture, women in the informal sector, women suffering from exploitation in the formal sector, and the effects on women of economic adjustment programs. Chapter 5 examines women in political life, and Chapter 6 defines the role women play as victims of domestic and other violence and as advocates of peace. The concluding chapter provides a practical guide to obtaining further information from the UN.
New Delhi, India, Department of Family Welfare, 1994. , 61 p.The country report prepared by India for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens by noting that India's population has increased from 361.1 million in 1951 to 846.3 million in 1991. In describing the demographic context of this, the largest democracy in the world, information is given on the growth rate, the sex ratio, the age structure, marital status, demographic transition, internal migration, urbanization, the economically active population and the industrial structure, literacy and education, data collection and analysis, and the outlook for the future. The second section of the report discusses India's population policy, planning, and programmatic framework. Topics covered include the national perception of population issues, the evolution of the population policy, the national family welfare program (infrastructure and services; maternal and child health; information, education, and communication; and achievements), the relationship of women to population and development, the relationship of population issues and sectoral activities, the environment, adolescents and youth, and AIDS. The third section presents operational aspects of family welfare program implementation and covers political and national support, the implementation strategy, the new action plan, program achievements and constraints, monitoring and evaluation, and financial aspects. The national action plan for the future is the topic of the fourth chapter and is discussed in terms of emerging and priority concerns, the role and relevance of the World Population Plan of Action and other international instruments, international migration, science and technology, and economic stabilization, structural reforms, and international financial support. After a 24-point summary, demographic information is appended in 17 tables and charts.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. , 156 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 102; World Bank Discussion Papers Africa Technical Department Series)As a companion volume to the first volume on trends and characteristics of migration and the relationship to development issues, this paper for each of 42 Sub-Saharan countries reviews demographic and migration patterns, policies, labor markets, agriculture, remittances, education/brain drain, refugees, and health as appropriate. The reduced tables by country include basic economic and demographic indicators for Sub-Saharan countries, a summary of the stock of migrants by source and destination countries, determinants and intermediate effects of the remittance system, government policies toward population distribution and mobility in terms of acceptance, refugees in need of protection.assistance annually 1985-88, asylum and source countries ranked by refugee stocks for 1988, and significant voluntary repatriations. The data were obtained primarily from census reports; however, the data reflect a time range between 1967 and 1982, undocumented migrants may or may not have been included, and guests may have been excluded from the surveys. Some preliminary analyses revealed that the relationship between the growth of aggregate gross domestic (or national) product and the stock of migrants was insignificant, and that the negative relationship between economic performance and stock of emigrants was not supported. Analysis did show that West African regions have significantly higher proportions of immigrants at the .012 level. Future research might explore the finding that countries with large immigrant populations have higher natural rates of population growth, excluding growth from immigration. Another finding was that enrolled primary school children in the country of origin are negatively related to the stock of emigrants as a percentage of resident population of that country. Finally, internal and external migration are interrelated. Further data collection is necessary because of the shortcomings of available data.
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 22 p.A supply-demand approach is used to estimate total and unmet demand for family planning in Indonesia over the last decade. The 1976 Indonesia Fertility Survey, the 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and the 1987 National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey form the database used in the study. Women under consideration have been married once, are aged 35-44, have husbands who are still alive, have had at least 2 live births, and had no births before marrying. High demand was found for family planning services, with the proportion of current users and women with unmet demand accounting for over 85% of the population. Marked improvement in contraceptive practice may be achieved by targeting programs to these 2 groups. Attention to unmotivated women is not of immediate concern. Women in need of these services are largely rural and uneducated. Programs will, therefore, require subsidization. The government should gradually and selectively further introduce self-sufficient family planning programs. User fees and private employer service provision to employees are program options to consider. Reducing the contraceptive use drop-out rate from its level of 47% is yet another approach to increase contraceptive prevalence in Indonesia. 33% drop out due to pregnancy, 26% from health problems, 10% because of method failure, 10% from inconveniences and access, and 21% from other causes. Improving service quality could dramatically reduce the degree of drop-outs.
Geneva, Switzerland, [ILO], 1988. x, 93 p. (International Labour Conference, 75th Session, 1988)Part II of the 1987 Report of the Director-General of the International Labor Organization (ILO) summarizes progress in terms of standard setting, technical cooperation, and information dissemination in labor relations, workers' and employers' activities, social security, the World Employment Program, and training. Also included is a report of the situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories. The overall goals of the ILO's Medium-Term Plan for 1990-95 include the defense and promotion of human rights, the promotion of employment, continuous improvement of working conditions, and the maintenance and strengthening of social security and welfare. In view of problems arising from certain atypical forms of employment and new working time arrangements, the ILO's role in the organized, formal sectors of national economies will assumed increased importance. It will also be necessary for the ILO to increase its efforts to extend social protection to the unorganized, informal sectors of national economies and to promote the protection of groups such as women, migrants, and younger and older workers. The creation of productive employment and the alleviation of poverty remain the most significant challenges facing the ILO today. Among the milestones of 1987 were: 1) the 4th European Regional Conference, which addressed both the impact of demographic development on social security and the training and retraining implications of technological change; 2) the 74th Maritime Session, devoted to the profound economic and technical changes faced by seafarers; 3) the High-Level Meeting on Employment and Structural Adjustment; and 4) the 14th International Conference of Labor Statisticians, which adopted new standards designed to enhance the reliability of national labor statistics and their international comparability.
AIDS ACTION. 1988 Dec; (5):3-4.The 1988 Consultation on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Workplace, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), addressed 3 issues: 1) risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, 2) the response of businesses and workers to the AIDS epidemic, and 3) use of the workplace for AIDS education. There is no evidence to suggest that HIV can be transmitted by casual, person-to-person contact in the workplace. The central policy issue for businesses concerns protection of the human rights of workers with HIV infection. Most workers with HIV/AIDS want to continue working as long as they are able to, and they should be enabled to contribute their creativity and productivity in a supportive occupational setting. Consistent policies and procedures should be developed at national and enterprise levels before HIV-related questions arise in the workplace. Such policies should be communicated to all concerned, continually reviewed in the light of scientific and epidemiologic evidence, monitored for their successful implementation, and evaluated for their effectiveness. Pre-employment HIV/AIDS screening, whether for assessment of fitness to work or for insurance purposes, should not be required and raises serious concerns about discrimination. Moreover, there should be no obligation on the worker's part to inform his or her employer if HIV infection develops. Information and educational activities at the workplace are essential to create the climate of collective responsibility and mutual understanding required to protect individuals with HIV or AIDS from stigmatization and discrimination by co-workers, employers or clients, and unions.
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR REVIEW. 1988; 127(5):559-71.The efforts of the International Labour Office (ILO) to educate workers in developing countries about population issues and family planning are discussed. "The author traces the evolution of ILO thinking from population control to family planning to family and community welfare and discusses the rationale for concentrating on the industrial sector, the programmes' orientation, content and methods, and the need to involve personnel managers and trade union leaders in particular." (EXCERPT)
Project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and ILO/Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP).
[Unpublished] 1987.  p. (Project No. PHI/87/EO1)This project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO)/Labor and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) continues support to the Population Unit of ECOP for an additional 2 years (July 1987-89). Economic uncertainties in the Philippines resulting from the past period of political turmoil necessitated this extension in ILO funding. After 1989, ECOP will absorb the population education officer into its regular staff. Continued funding of the ECOP program is based on several favorable factors, including the evident commitment of the ECOP directors to population activities, contact made with individual employers and business associations since 1985, and the production high-quality IEC materials. The long-term objective of this project is to promote smaller families through educational and motivational programs that emphasize the close relationship of family planning and living standards and to link such activities with existing health services at the plant level. Specific objectives are to disseminate information on family planning and family welfare to workers and to educate employers in the industrial sector about the relevance of family planning to labor force development. Project activities will include monthly seminars for employers and meetings with member associations of ECOP.
The ECOP-ILO Population Education Program: a report on program implementation (January 1985 - December 1986).
[Unpublished] . 11 p.A 2-year (Jan. 1985 - Dec. 1986) Population Education Project was carried out by the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) with the objectives of informing employers of the importance of population and family life education and assisting them in the provision of family life education programs and family planning services for their workers. ECOP undertook a preliminary survey of 269 companies, which showed that: 1) Only 49 had family planning programs; 2) Only 37 of the others had any interest in having one; 3) Only 8.7% of the workers were acceptors; 4) Only 45 companies had clinics; 5) Only 7 had incentive schemes to motivate the workers; and 6) 98% of the 210 respondents felt that ECOP should not be involved in family planning. To accomplish its objectives ECOP held 22 population education seminars, attended by 98 company representatives over the 2-year period. With the assistance of the Population Center Foundation (PCF) ECOP established an In-Plant Family Planning Program, which determined the existing knowledge, attitude and practice of workers; recruited and trained clinic staffs and volunteers; disseminated information; and delivered family planning commodities and services. The ECOP also approved an incentive scheme to encourage employers to support the program. The ECOP Population Unit participated in the 1986 Philippine International Trade Fair by setting up exhibits, showing audiovisual presentations, and distributing ILO handbooks on population education. The ECOP project officer attended an inter-country population workshop in Tokyo. The ECOP recommended that the participating companies meet to discuss the project's accomplishments, implement incentive plans, assist in setting up family planning programs, join with family planning agencies to provide services, devise ways of making men aware of their responsibilities in family planning, and study the productivity of workers who practice family planning.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, Population and Labour Policies Branch, 1978.  p.This brochure, addressed primarily to International Labor Office (ILO) personnel, seeks to introduce the content and modalities of the population and family welfare education component of the ILO's Labor and Population Program. Whenever possible, training projects should include a presentation of relevant population/family welfare issues consistent with national policies and priorities. The content of such education should be directed at family-level relationships and the family well-being of individual workers. From the standpoint of the worker, the relationship between labor and population has 2 facets: 1) the pressure of labor supply (caused both by current birth rates and migration to urban industrial centers) and 2) family welfare and the standard of living. Workers must be shown that they can determine their own family size and, in so doing, they can increase their control over actual and expected material resources. The contribution required from a training program is relatively small. In countries where there is an ILO-executed family welfare education program, such trainers can be used to both prepare and present the new component in the basic training programs. In countries where population policies are primarily health oriented and implemented largely by health ministries with little participation of other sectors, the introduction of a family welfare component into an ongoing basic training program may need to be preceded by interdepartmental discussions and clearances at government level.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1981. 210 p.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office [ILO], 1984. 56 p.This booklet describes the origins, scope, purpose, achievements and perspectives of the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programme since its inception in the early 1970s as an integral part of the World Employment Programme. Its focus is in the area where population issues and labour and employment concerns intersect. The booklet was produced on the occasion of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, but is also intended as a source of information on ILO's population activities for the general reader. Topics covered include the integration of population and development planning, institution building, women's roles and demographic issues, fertility, labor force, migration and population distribution, and motivation through education. (EXCERPT)
New York, UN, 1982. 210 p. (E/CN.5/1983/3; ST/ESA/125)This report, the 10th in a series dating from 1952, notes in a brief introductory statement a series of effects on the world social situation of the poor state of the world economy. The 1st major section, on living conditions and aspirations in time of renewed economic stress, contains discussions of equity and the elimination of poverty in the developing world; social justice and distribution in industrial countries; changes in family size, life cycles, and roles; the recent trends and issues in social security systems; employment issues and underemployment and unemployment in developing and developed countries, trends in international migration, and the growth of a parallel economy. A section on changes in elements of well-being analyzes trends in specific domains of social life and areas of social concern, including food and nutrition, health, education and training, working conditions, housing, and the environment. The 3rd section focuses on some major aspects of the evolution of contemporary societies that have direct effect on social programs: participation, agrarian reforms, science and technology, disarmament and development, and civil and political rights. Throughout the work, the emphasis is more on identifying regional trends and developments than on discussing situations in particular countries.
New York, UNFPA, 1976 Aug 9. 39 p.The UN Fund for Population Activities has been supporting population activities undertaken by the International Institute for Labor Studies (IILS) connected to the International Labor Organization in Geneva since 1972. This evaluation report covers the following: ILO Population Program; IILS (objectives, activities, follow-up, staff, and financial situation); population activities of IILS (objectives, activities in the field of population, financial situation, and achievements); and conclusions and recommendations. The IILS was founded by the Governing Body of ILO in 1960 for the purpose of furthering a better international understanding of labor and social development problems and of the possible methods for their solution. The Institute should provide those with responsibilities in industry, in the trade unions, and in government, and in community work, i.e., future policymakers, with opportunities for discussion, exchange of ideas and research in the area of social policies. In 1975 IILS was reorganized to reflect the emphasis of the work in the following 3 principal areas: economic change and labor policy; the dynamics of industrial relations systems; and quality of life and social perspectives. The IILS objectives have been translated into major activities in the following areas: education; research; symposia and meetings; and other activities. The long range objectives of the population activities of the IILS include: contributing to climate of rational debate and action on national population policy; building bridges between the institutions of the labor sector and those agencies with primary responsibility in the field of population and family planning; increasing the objective study and consideration of population problems and their relation to development and social policy by key personnel in worker, employer, and government organizations, who will play a leading role in labor and social policy decision making; and promoting the study of these problems by academics in the labor studies field in developing countries. The objectives of the IILS population program are consistent with the new objectives of the ILO program. IILS has performed its population activities in a satisfactory manner. UNFPA funds have been crucial for these activities. The Institute has shown a special capacity for organizing educational activities. Although it is not possible to make any precise judgement of the program's achievements, it appears that the immediate objectives have been realized in part and that the medium range objectives are partially achieved. The long range objectives have a potential for being realized in the future.
In: Hossain T, Ahmed JU, Khan NI, ed. Proceedings of the Seminar on Family Planning, November 21-25, 1972. Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Health and Family Planning, 1973. 563-7.The structure of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and its established program in certain sectors provide a firm basis for distinctive initiative in the population field. The ILO can effectively contribute to the broadening of the base of support and action of population programs. Additionally, the workers' education programs and the medical care component of social security schemes afford opportunities for forging substantive links of operational policy with population activities. Recent decisions on the part of policymaking programs have given special emphasis to population programs in the activities of the ILO. ILO effort in the Asian region was initiated by 2 exploratory missions: a medical specialist examined the possibilities of including family planning services into social security and enterprise level medical services; and a workers education expert collecting facts concerning attitudes and needs among Asian trade unions. 3 important regional meetings have been held for discussions among the ILO constituents and representatives of national family planning authorities on the ways in which workers and employers involvement in population and family planning activities could be strengthened. Another and more specialized type of meeting was held in 1971 with demographers and manpower planners to identify research objectives. A series of national seminars on population questions was begun in 1971. To meet an increasing demand among the government and the workers and employers organizations for assistance in the population and family planning activities in the organized sector, an Asian Labor and Population Team has been formed at the Regional Office in Bangkok. The Central Board of Workers Education in India (CBWE) has carried out a considerable amount of population education and produced visual aides particularly designed for this kind of education. ILO proposed to seek the collaboration of the CBWE on a project for the production and testing of educational kits for local level union courses.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1983. 264 p.Add to my documents.