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Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):185-192.I was asked by the organizers of this international conference to discuss, in my presentation, the effects of ageing on competitiveness. I will start by arguing that the key economic issue involved by ageing is growth rather than competitiveness per se, as ageing may reduce the growth potential of nations. I will however point out that there is nothing unavoidable about this effect of ageing on growth. Reforming pensions and labour market institutions in order to better exploit returns from experience, it is possible to counteract the effects of a declining workforce on growth and sustain a relatively high rate of capital accumulation even under older societies. But there are strong political obstacles to these reforms. These political obstacles should be fully understood, it is still a matter of positive economics, and possibly counteracted (the domain of normative economics). (excerpt)
New York, UN, 1982. 210 p. (E/CN.5/1983/3; ST/ESA/125)This report, the 10th in a series dating from 1952, notes in a brief introductory statement a series of effects on the world social situation of the poor state of the world economy. The 1st major section, on living conditions and aspirations in time of renewed economic stress, contains discussions of equity and the elimination of poverty in the developing world; social justice and distribution in industrial countries; changes in family size, life cycles, and roles; the recent trends and issues in social security systems; employment issues and underemployment and unemployment in developing and developed countries, trends in international migration, and the growth of a parallel economy. A section on changes in elements of well-being analyzes trends in specific domains of social life and areas of social concern, including food and nutrition, health, education and training, working conditions, housing, and the environment. The 3rd section focuses on some major aspects of the evolution of contemporary societies that have direct effect on social programs: participation, agrarian reforms, science and technology, disarmament and development, and civil and political rights. Throughout the work, the emphasis is more on identifying regional trends and developments than on discussing situations in particular countries.
A survey of research on population and employment under ILO's World Employment Programme. Paper No. 1.
In: Seminar on population, employment and development in ASEAN countries, Bangkok, 1978: report and background papers. Bangkok, International Labor Office, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1979. 1-24.Reports on two components of the work carried out by the ILO's Population and Employment Project which began in 1922: a series of specific empirical studies in population and employment, and development of large scale economic-demographic planning models (the BACHUE series) based on the studies. The methodology of the studies stressed household level decision making, and integration of microlevel data with macro. The specific studies in the areas of labor force participation, fertility, demographic factors in household economy and government expenditure, migration, and the role of women and its implications for demography are summarized. The structure of the models and their use in simulating the effects of policies are described. A list of working papers and case studies is appended.