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  1. 1

    Arab women in ESCWA member states: statistics, indicators and trends.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. vi, 301 p. (E/ESCWA/STAT/1994/17)

    This volume provides a compilation of statistics for specific Arab countries on population, education and training, health and childbearing, housing and public health, women's work and economic activity, and women's political participation. Data were compiled from the UN database of censuses for 1960-90, surveys, national reports, and UN population estimates. The Arab countries include Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, the West Bank (Palestine), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates (UAE), the former Arab Republic of Yemen, and the former Democratic Republic of Yemen. Country-specific sources are indicated for each data set and the year of observation. The total fertility rates for 1990-95 were 4.19 (Bahrain), 4.55 (Egypt), 5.25 (Iraq), 5.6 (Jordan), 6.51 (Kuwait), 7.84 (Oman). 6.19 (West Bank), 4.49 (Qatar), 6.46 (Saudi Arabia), 5.91 (UAE), and 7.6 (Yemen). Contraceptive usage among currently married women aged 15-49 years was, in the most recent year available, 53.8% (Bahrain), 47.1% (Egypt), 18.0% (Iraq), 40.0% (Jordan), 34.6% (Kuwait), 57.0% (Lebanon), 8.6% (Oman), 32.3% (Qatar), 29.5% (Syria), and 11.2% (Yemen). The percentage of women in the labor force engaged in agriculture, in the most recent year available, was 0.21% (Bahrain), 61.03% (Egypt), 14.26% (Iraq), 4.36% (Jordan), 0.08% (Kuwait), 5.40% (Lebanon), 0.02% (Qatar), 2.07% (Saudi Arabia), 50.39% (Syria), 0.06% (UAE), 93.90% (Yemen, AR), and 30.24% (Yemen, DR). The proportion of economically active females, in the most recent year available, was 29.26% (Bahrain), 2.94% (Egypt), 10.47% (Iraq), 14.06% (Jordan), 34.33% (Kuwait), 12.21% (Lebanon), 10.99% (Oman), 27.51% (Qatar), 7.29% (Saudi Arabia), 17.60% (Syria), 24.22% (UAE), and 27.30% (Yemen, AR). An executive summary was not included.
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  2. 2

    [Resolution No.] 48/104. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women [20 December 1993].

    United Nations. General Assembly


    On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly issued a Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women. The preamble to the Declaration refers to international human rights treaties and notes that the present resolution will strengthen the implementation process for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Violence against women is denounced as an obstacle to development, a violation of rights and fundamental freedoms, and a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between the sexes. Concern is also expressed for women in particularly vulnerable groups. The Declaration opens with a definition of "violence against women" as "any act of gender-based violence that results in . . . physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women. . .." Article 2 notes that these acts include domestic violence, sexual abuse, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation, rape, sexual harassment, forced prostitution, and violence perpetrated or condoned by any State. The third article states that women's rights are to include the right to life, to equality, to liberty and security of person, to equal protection under the law, to freedom from discrimination, to the highest attainable physical and mental health, to just and favorable employment conditions, and to protection from torture or inhuman punishment. Article 4 notes that States should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom, tradition, or religion to avoid their obligations to elimination such violence. This article also contains additional specific measures which States should follow. The fifth article covers ways in which the UN can contribute to this goal by taking such actions as fostering international and regional cooperation, promoting meetings and seminars, fostering coordination within the UN system, and cooperating with nongovernmental organizations.
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  3. 3

    Statistics and indicators on women in Africa. 1986. Statistiques et indicateurs sur les femmes en Afrique. 1986.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 225 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 7)

    This compendium provides statistics by country on a number of measures of women's status and participation in decision making in Africa. Chapters are devoted to statistics on population composition and distribution, households and families, economic participation and not in the labor force, national household income and expenditures, education and literacy, health and health services and disability, housing conditions and settlement patterns, political participation, and crime. The last chapter gives information on population statistics programs. The time reference period covers 1970-86. 31 statistical tables are given. Population estimates and projections use statistics available as of 1984 from the Compendium of Human Settlements Statistics and the Demographic Yearbook. First marriage is calculated on the basis of a single census or survey according to procedures described by Hajnal. The economically active population refers to work for pay or profit or availability for work. Employment includes enterprise workers, own-account workers, employees, unpaid family workers, members of cooperatives, and members of the armed forces. Attempts are made to more accurately present women's work, particularly for unpaid family work for production for own or household consumption and own-account workers. Occupational groups include professional, administrative, and clerical. Agricultural, industrial, and forestry workers are included in the total. Educational levels pertain to ages 5-7 and lasting about 5 years, ages 10-12 and lasting about 3 years, ages 13-15 and lasting 4 years, and ages 17-19 and lasting at least 3 or 4 years. Health indicators include mortality and survival rates, causes of death, selection female measures, cigarette consumption, and disability. Housing is differentiated by availability of electricity, piped water, and toilets. Women's political participation refers to representation in parliamentary assemblies and as professional staff in the UN Secretariat. Crime includes arrests and prison population. Population programs include data collection in censuses, household surveys conducted under the UN Survey Capability Program, and civil registration systems.
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  4. 4

    Women's health: across age and frontier.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. vii, 107 p.

    WHO has compiled tables and graphs in a book reflecting various components of the health of women worldwide. These tables and graphs demonstrate that women continue to be denied their right to health--the most basic of human rights. Gender-related factors account, for the most part, for women's vulnerability, resulting in poorer health for females than males. They reveal the social discrimination women who experience. The book covers women's lifespan to illustrate not only inequity and discrimination throughout the years, but also the intergenerational effects, importance of adolescence, the broader context of women's reproduction, and the importance of elderly women. It first examines socioeconomic determinants of women's health, such as women's status, female literacy, income level, labor force participation, mother's education, and female-headed household. Next, it looks at infancy and childhood, specifically sex preference, breast feeding and weaning, child nutrition, sex-specific mortality, and sex-specific incidence rates for respiratory infections. It then moves on to explore adolescence. It covers the adult years prior to age 65 by focusing on women at work, pregnancy and childbirth, infections and chronic diseases (e.g., HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, cancer, and smoking-related diseases), and violence and mental disorders (e.g., domestic violence, homicide, rape, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse). It concludes with tables and graphs on elderly women. They show life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, widowhood, distribution of the elderly, elderly living in rural and urban areas, cardiovascular disease death rates, osteoarthritis, and a definite rheumatoid arthritis.
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