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  1. 1
    184914

    Indonesia burdened by population ills, political and social pressures.

    Collymore Y

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2003 Aug. 3 p.

    Still reaping the repercussions of the Asian financial crisis, Indonesia has in recent years struggled with numerous difficulties ranging from social unrest, political instability, and ethnic and sectarian violence to a decline in access to health care and other public services. More recent events, including the bomb blast in Jakarta — which followed other deadly bombings in 2002 — have increased fears that the sprawling archipelago may be facing new political and population pressures. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    083772

    The situation of women 1990, selected indicators. Equality, development, peace.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Office at Vienna; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]; International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [INSTRAW]

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1990. [1] p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8/Add.1/Rev.1)

    Selected indicators of equality, development, and peace are charted for 178 countries and regions of the world for the most recent year available. The data were obtained from the UN Women's Indicators and Statistics Data Base for microcomputers (Wistat) maintained by he Statistical Office of the UN Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. The chart updates the prior 1986 publication and supplements the UN publications, Women and Social Trends (1970-90). Population composition and distribution measures include total population in 1990 by sex, percentage of the population >60 years of age by sex, and percentage of rural population by sex (1980/85). Educational measures are provided for the percentage of illiterate population aged 15 years and older (1980-85) by sex, primary and secondary enrollment by sex (1985/87), and post-secondary enrollment by sex. Economic activity is measured by the percentage of women in the labor force. Other measures include the population aged 45-59 not currently married (1980-85) by sex, the total fertility rate (1985-90), maternal death rate (1980/86), and percentage of female contraceptive use 1980/88). The percentage of female legislators is given for 1985/87 where data is available. Definition of terms is briefly and generally given.
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  3. 3
    120019

    Arab women in ESCWA member states: statistics, indicators and trends.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. vi, 301 p. (E/ESCWA/STAT/1994/17)

    This volume provides a compilation of statistics for specific Arab countries on population, education and training, health and childbearing, housing and public health, women's work and economic activity, and women's political participation. Data were compiled from the UN database of censuses for 1960-90, surveys, national reports, and UN population estimates. The Arab countries include Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, the West Bank (Palestine), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates (UAE), the former Arab Republic of Yemen, and the former Democratic Republic of Yemen. Country-specific sources are indicated for each data set and the year of observation. The total fertility rates for 1990-95 were 4.19 (Bahrain), 4.55 (Egypt), 5.25 (Iraq), 5.6 (Jordan), 6.51 (Kuwait), 7.84 (Oman). 6.19 (West Bank), 4.49 (Qatar), 6.46 (Saudi Arabia), 5.91 (UAE), and 7.6 (Yemen). Contraceptive usage among currently married women aged 15-49 years was, in the most recent year available, 53.8% (Bahrain), 47.1% (Egypt), 18.0% (Iraq), 40.0% (Jordan), 34.6% (Kuwait), 57.0% (Lebanon), 8.6% (Oman), 32.3% (Qatar), 29.5% (Syria), and 11.2% (Yemen). The percentage of women in the labor force engaged in agriculture, in the most recent year available, was 0.21% (Bahrain), 61.03% (Egypt), 14.26% (Iraq), 4.36% (Jordan), 0.08% (Kuwait), 5.40% (Lebanon), 0.02% (Qatar), 2.07% (Saudi Arabia), 50.39% (Syria), 0.06% (UAE), 93.90% (Yemen, AR), and 30.24% (Yemen, DR). The proportion of economically active females, in the most recent year available, was 29.26% (Bahrain), 2.94% (Egypt), 10.47% (Iraq), 14.06% (Jordan), 34.33% (Kuwait), 12.21% (Lebanon), 10.99% (Oman), 27.51% (Qatar), 7.29% (Saudi Arabia), 17.60% (Syria), 24.22% (UAE), and 27.30% (Yemen, AR). An executive summary was not included.
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  4. 4
    073744

    Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Leete R

    POPULATION RESEARCH LEADS. 1991; (39):1-17.

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by institutional change in ideas about families and schooling and material welfare, changes in the structure of governance, and changes in state ideology. Thailand's decline began in the 1960s and is attributed to social change, change in cultural setting, demand, and FP efforts. Modest declines characterize Malaysia and the Philippines, which have been surpassed by Myanmar and Viet Nam. The policy implications are that there are shortages in labor supply which can be remedied with labor migration, pronatalist policy, more capital intensive industries, and preparation for a changing economy.
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  5. 5
    069268

    The demand for family planning in Indonesia 1976 to 1987: a supply-demand analysis.

    Dwiyanto A

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 22 p.

    A supply-demand approach is used to estimate total and unmet demand for family planning in Indonesia over the last decade. The 1976 Indonesia Fertility Survey, the 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and the 1987 National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey form the database used in the study. Women under consideration have been married once, are aged 35-44, have husbands who are still alive, have had at least 2 live births, and had no births before marrying. High demand was found for family planning services, with the proportion of current users and women with unmet demand accounting for over 85% of the population. Marked improvement in contraceptive practice may be achieved by targeting programs to these 2 groups. Attention to unmotivated women is not of immediate concern. Women in need of these services are largely rural and uneducated. Programs will, therefore, require subsidization. The government should gradually and selectively further introduce self-sufficient family planning programs. User fees and private employer service provision to employees are program options to consider. Reducing the contraceptive use drop-out rate from its level of 47% is yet another approach to increase contraceptive prevalence in Indonesia. 33% drop out due to pregnancy, 26% from health problems, 10% because of method failure, 10% from inconveniences and access, and 21% from other causes. Improving service quality could dramatically reduce the degree of drop-outs.
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  6. 6
    030137

    Socio-economic development and fertility decline in Costa Rica. Background paper prepared for the project on socio-economic development and fertility decline.

    Denton C; Acuna O; Gomez M; Fernandez M; Raabe C; Bogan M

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 118 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/55)

    This summary of information on the development process in Costa Rica and its relation to fertility from 1950-70 is a revision of a study prepared for the Workshop on Socioeconomic Development and Fertility Decline held in Costa Rica in April 1982 as part of a UN comparative study of 5 developing countries. The report contains chapters on background information on fertility and the family, historical facts, and political organization of Costa Rica; the development strategy and its consequences vis a vis the composition of the gross domestic product, balance of trade, investment trends, the structure of the labor force, educational levels, and income; the allocation of public resources in public employment, public investment, credit, public expenditures, and the impact of resource allocation policies; changes in land tenure patterns; cultural factors affecting fertility, including education, women and their family roles, behavior in the home, women and politics, work and social security, and race and religion; changes in demographic variables, including nuptiality patterns, marital fertility, and natural fertility and birth control; characteristics and determining factors of the decline in fertility, including levels and trends, decline by age group, decline in terms of birth order, differences among population groups, how fertility declined, and history and role of family planning programs; and a discussion of the modernization process in Costa Rica and the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables. Beginning with the 1948 civil war, Costa Rica underwent drastic changes which were still reflected in national life as late as 1970. The industrial sector and the government bureaucracy have become decisive forces in development and the government has become the major employer. The state plays a key role in economic life, and state participation is a determining factor in extending medical and educational resources in the social field. The economically active population declined from 64% in 1960 to 55% in 1975 due to urbanization and migration from rural to urban areas, but there was an increase in economic participation of women, especially in urban areas. Increased educational level of the population in general and women in particular created changes in traditional attitudes and behavior. Although there is no specific explanation of why Costa Rica's fertility decline occurred, some observations about its determining factors and mechanisms can be made: the considerable economic development of the 1950s and 1960s brought about a rapid rise in per capita income and changes in the structure of production as well as substantial social development, increased opportunities for self-improvement for some social groups, and a rise in expectations. The size of the family became an aspect of conflict between rising expectations and increasing expenses. The National Family Planning Program helped accelerate the fertility decline.
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  7. 7
    267351

    Fertility and the family: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 45-73. (International Conference on Popualtion, 1984; Statements)

    This paper uses as its organizing principle 5 major themes which run through the sections of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) devoted to fertility and the family. The purpose of this paper it to assure that their discussion is comprehensive and that it reviews all the major research and policy concerns with respect to fertility and the family that have played an important role in the general debate about these issues since 1974. Summerized here are the contributions included in this volumen, as each deals with at least 1 of these issues. The 1st major theme focuses on fertility response to modernization as a facet of the interrelationship between population and development. Discussed are aspects of modernization leading to fertility increases, in particular the reduced incidence and shorter duration of breastfeeding, and those leading to fertility decline, namely the decline in the value of children as a source of labor and old-age support. Freedom of choice, information and education are the principal approaches within which childbearing decision making is discussed. Women's reproductive and economic activity during their life cycle, and the relationship of family types and functions to fertility levels and change are equally addressed. Finally, demographic goals and policy alternatives with respect to fertility change are discussed in terms of a number of policy options: family planning programs, economic incentives and disincentives and more global socioeconomic measures. Although primary attention is given to the problems and policies of developing countries, the special problems of certrain developed countries which view their fertility as too low are also considered. The issues raised in this paper are put forward as an aid to assist in the identification of emderging areas of policy concern and of fruitful new research directions.
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