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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. , 156 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 102; World Bank Discussion Papers Africa Technical Department Series)As a companion volume to the first volume on trends and characteristics of migration and the relationship to development issues, this paper for each of 42 Sub-Saharan countries reviews demographic and migration patterns, policies, labor markets, agriculture, remittances, education/brain drain, refugees, and health as appropriate. The reduced tables by country include basic economic and demographic indicators for Sub-Saharan countries, a summary of the stock of migrants by source and destination countries, determinants and intermediate effects of the remittance system, government policies toward population distribution and mobility in terms of acceptance, refugees in need of protection.assistance annually 1985-88, asylum and source countries ranked by refugee stocks for 1988, and significant voluntary repatriations. The data were obtained primarily from census reports; however, the data reflect a time range between 1967 and 1982, undocumented migrants may or may not have been included, and guests may have been excluded from the surveys. Some preliminary analyses revealed that the relationship between the growth of aggregate gross domestic (or national) product and the stock of migrants was insignificant, and that the negative relationship between economic performance and stock of emigrants was not supported. Analysis did show that West African regions have significantly higher proportions of immigrants at the .012 level. Future research might explore the finding that countries with large immigrant populations have higher natural rates of population growth, excluding growth from immigration. Another finding was that enrolled primary school children in the country of origin are negatively related to the stock of emigrants as a percentage of resident population of that country. Finally, internal and external migration are interrelated. Further data collection is necessary because of the shortcomings of available data.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)