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International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.
[Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 163-5. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)The Onchocerciasis Control Program in the Volta Basin is aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease so that it is no longer a major risk to public health and an obstacle to socioeconomic development. Aerial spraying of insecticides has been carried out over 7 countries of West Africa where 10 million people live. The economic advantages of the program come from 2 production factors: labor and land. As far as labor is concerned, the program will increase productive capacities by reducing the production losses resulting from vision disorders or blindness in the laborforce, decrease the debilitating effects of the parasite which leaves people more vulnerable to other diseases, and increase ability of farmers to cultivate land near rivers without constant exposure to hundreds of bites a day. The major economic development will come from developing new land. Several reports are cited indicating projected kilometers of new land that would become available. The major concern is the best way to organize the utilization of the new land, taking into account organized and unorganized migration. It is apparent that various areas and countries within the program have different demographic pressures on their land as well as different structures and planning institutions. Considerable resources of men and financial means are required to finance these land development programs and must come from international sources. Some of the costs and cost evaluations are given. A belief in the cooperation among rich and poor countries for a program without boundaries has already demonstrated the cooperative nature of the Onchocerciasis Control Program.