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  1. 1
    055727

    AIDS in the developing countries.

    Tinker J

    ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 1988 Winter; 4(2):43-8.

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd world as well as negative effects on tourism. The global underclass will be disproportionately affected by AIDS as the blacks and Hispanics already are in New York and Miami. Thus far, the reaction of donor countries to the World Health Organization's (WHO) appeal for funds to fight the battle against AIDS has been excellent. The global strategy of WHO places priority on national campaigns, but none of the national campaigns will be effective unless linked to similar actions in other nations to form a vigorous international program. The US has a special responsibility to provide international leadership on AIDS. The US is the world leader in AIDS research and has the bulk of the virus research capacity. Further, no country can come close to matching US experience in dealing with AIDS through "safe sex" education campaigns.
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  2. 2
    268271

    Report on a WHO meetings: Steering Committee Meeting of the Task Force on Child Labor and Health, Bombay, India: 21-26 May 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1985. 14 p. (MCH/85.2)

    This report records the proceedings of a WHO meeting on child labor and health held in Bombay, India, May 28-29, 1984. The objectives of the meeting were to define the possible health implications of child labor, to make recommendations for inter-sectoral action, to promote greater collaboration among individuals and groups in the field of child labor, and to promote inter-sectoral and multi-disciplinary research in child labor and health, including the provision of technical support for national action. Reports were given of national workshops on child labor in Bombay and Nairobi, and research projects in progress in Bombay, Nairobi, and Hyderabad were reviewed. The meeting also discussed the WHO inter-regional workshop in Bombay, May 21-26, 1984. Points emerging from the workshop included suggestions for how the Task Force could best promote research and actions at the local and national level, and consideration was also given on how to improve future workshops. Other aspects of the inter-regional workshop discussed at the meeting were proposals for future research, workshop training materials, and promotion of national and regional workshops. The Steering Committee designated additional linkages with Governmental agencies, NGOs, and international organizations as one of its areas for action, along with dissemination of information to raise general community awareness of child labor and its health implications. The Occupational Health Unit of WHO in Geneva is organizing a study group on "The Health of Working Children" which is to meet in Geneva from October 14-18, 1985. It was recommended that the composition of the Steering Committee be broadened to include additional disciplines and agencies. The next Steering Committee meeting should occur within 12-24 months.
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  3. 3
    266034

    The economic aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme in the Volta Basin.

    Bazin M

    In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 163-5. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)

    The Onchocerciasis Control Program in the Volta Basin is aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease so that it is no longer a major risk to public health and an obstacle to socioeconomic development. Aerial spraying of insecticides has been carried out over 7 countries of West Africa where 10 million people live. The economic advantages of the program come from 2 production factors: labor and land. As far as labor is concerned, the program will increase productive capacities by reducing the production losses resulting from vision disorders or blindness in the laborforce, decrease the debilitating effects of the parasite which leaves people more vulnerable to other diseases, and increase ability of farmers to cultivate land near rivers without constant exposure to hundreds of bites a day. The major economic development will come from developing new land. Several reports are cited indicating projected kilometers of new land that would become available. The major concern is the best way to organize the utilization of the new land, taking into account organized and unorganized migration. It is apparent that various areas and countries within the program have different demographic pressures on their land as well as different structures and planning institutions. Considerable resources of men and financial means are required to finance these land development programs and must come from international sources. Some of the costs and cost evaluations are given. A belief in the cooperation among rich and poor countries for a program without boundaries has already demonstrated the cooperative nature of the Onchocerciasis Control Program.
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