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[Unpublished] 1989 Dec. , 36,  p. (ADB/BD/WP/89/142; ADF/BD/WP/89/133; Doc. 0086F)This policy paper on Women in Development (WID) by the African Development Bank presents the policy of the Bank Group on integration of women into the development process. It highlights the sectors in which the Bank Group will intervene for women in this lending, technical assistance and training operations. The 6 chapters deal with the background, rationale and objectives of the policy, the role of women in African development, the constraints on women, and responses of international, donor, regional and national agencies to the issue of WID. A review of the activity of African women in agriculture, food production and processing, fishing, informal sector production, education, health, water, environment, and sanitation describes their significant if unacknowledged role. Constraints of illiteracy, lack of education and vocational training, lack of access to materials, marketing, storage, transportation, bookkeeping and management, and the overall legal, cultural and social barriers add up to low participation by women in decision-making processes in society. The last 2 chapters focus on the Bank Group's policy and strategies for the integration of women into the development process. They are categorized by the sectors: agriculture, formal and informal sector of industry, environment, water and sanitation, education, and health. Sector policies and lending operations will have gender dimensions, regional member countries will be encouraged to desegregate data by gender, and gender impact assessments will be undertaken when possible. General areas where WID policies are pertinent also include: vocational training, health, access to credit, staff development, international coordination, and information. Only concerted and sustained collaborative effort between the Bank Group and member countries' decision and policy makers will ensure successful implementation of the policy.
SERVIR. 1995 Sep-Oct; 43(5):270-2.A seminar of the International Labor Organization (ILO) was held to shed light on the role of AIDS in decimating qualified professionals in Anglophone Africa. The estimates of the World Health Organization indicate that the number of people infected with HIV in the whole world was 13-15 million persons at the end of 1994, of which 8 million lived in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda it is calculated that 1.5 million people are carriers of HIV, and by 1998 this figure could increase to 1.9 million. In both Zambia and Zimbabwe, in the 20-39 year age group, AIDS cases amount to 70% and 74%, respectively. Studies carried out in Rwanda, Zaire, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe revealed that AIDS is most frequent among members of the higher socioeconomic classes. The inability to find replacements for jobs requiring higher qualifications will result in dire consequences for these economies. During the 6-year period between 1988-89 and 1993-94 the Uganda Commercial Bank registered 229 deaths due to AIDS among its 1600 employees (14%). AIDS also requires the expenditure of scarce health resources on treatment: in 1992, hospital occupancy for diseases associated with AIDS reached 40-60% in Kinshasa, Zaire; 50% in Lusaka, Zambia; 60% in Kigali, Rwanda; and 70% in Bujumbura, Burundi. Various programs have been launched to fight HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Uganda, to sensitize and educate people about the epidemic. The protection of human rights, the avoidance of discrimination, and the adoption of safe sex techniques are promoted by these programs. Companies have programs to combat AIDS. Ubombo Ranches Ltd. in Swaziland started an information program in 1991 and distributed free condoms. BAT Uganda Ltd. also started an information and training-of-trainers program in 1989, which by 1994 had benefitted about 90% of the employees. This has resulted in the reduction of AIDS cases and associated medical costs.
FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1986 Jan. 83 p.The educational activities of the International Labor Organization's (ILO) Population and Labor Policies Program was launched in the early 1970s. It's spectrum includes: promotion of information and education activities devoted to population and family planning questions at various levels, particularly by means of workers' education, labor welfare, and cooperative and rural institutions' programs; policy- oriented research on the demographic aspects of measures of social policy in certain fields, such as employment and social security; and efforts to stimulate participation by social security and enterprise- level medical services in the promotion of family planning. At the outset, the ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of educational activities in selected countries. Slowly, the concept of an ILO population-oriented program developed, and regional labor and population teams were established. At the next stage, regional advisers extended their activities to the national level. Project descriptions are included for the countries of India, Jordan, Kiribati, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Nepal, Congo, Zambia, and the Philippines.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
Report on a WHO meetings: Steering Committee Meeting of the Task Force on Child Labor and Health, Bombay, India: 21-26 May 1984.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1985. 14 p. (MCH/85.2)This report records the proceedings of a WHO meeting on child labor and health held in Bombay, India, May 28-29, 1984. The objectives of the meeting were to define the possible health implications of child labor, to make recommendations for inter-sectoral action, to promote greater collaboration among individuals and groups in the field of child labor, and to promote inter-sectoral and multi-disciplinary research in child labor and health, including the provision of technical support for national action. Reports were given of national workshops on child labor in Bombay and Nairobi, and research projects in progress in Bombay, Nairobi, and Hyderabad were reviewed. The meeting also discussed the WHO inter-regional workshop in Bombay, May 21-26, 1984. Points emerging from the workshop included suggestions for how the Task Force could best promote research and actions at the local and national level, and consideration was also given on how to improve future workshops. Other aspects of the inter-regional workshop discussed at the meeting were proposals for future research, workshop training materials, and promotion of national and regional workshops. The Steering Committee designated additional linkages with Governmental agencies, NGOs, and international organizations as one of its areas for action, along with dissemination of information to raise general community awareness of child labor and its health implications. The Occupational Health Unit of WHO in Geneva is organizing a study group on "The Health of Working Children" which is to meet in Geneva from October 14-18, 1985. It was recommended that the composition of the Steering Committee be broadened to include additional disciplines and agencies. The next Steering Committee meeting should occur within 12-24 months.
Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
Population issues in developing countries: their impact on industrial relations and human resources development.
Geneva, International Labour Office, 1979. 11 p.The population policy program of the International Labour Organization (ILO) was described, and the relationship between high fertility rates and labor supply, female labor force participation rates, and worker productivity was discussed. In the late 1960s the Governing Body of ILO, recognizing the implications for labor of rapid population growth, extended the ILO mandate to include education activities undertaken in accordance with naitonal poliicies. Population education for workers is vital as population growth directly affects worker welfare in a number of ways. In countries with rapid population growth, the labor supply often increases at a faster rate than the demand for labor. in Sri Lanka, the impact of population growth is clearly evidenced in the current 40% unemployment rate among urban males, aged 15-24. An oversupply of labor also has an impact on job security and on labor and management relationships. Some countries, faced with an overabundance of labor, have adopted policies to reduce capital intensive technological innovations and to increase the use of labor intensive technologies. This approach may temporarily decrease unemployement but it reduces industrial efficiency and ultimately retards industrial expansion. There is an inverse relationship between female labor force participation and fertility rates. If female labor force participation is encouraged, fetility rates will decline; however, the competition for female jobs will continue to increase beause larger cohorts of females born during the high fertility years will continue to enter the labor market for many years. There is some evidence that large family size has a negative impact on worker productivity. Knowledge of the macrolevel economic effects of high birthrates will not discourage individuals from having large families; however, an awareness of the problems engendered by large family size at the household level can exert an influence on an individual's fertility decisions. In 1970 ILO population activities were operationalized, and by 1978, 3 regional labor and population teams were working on projects in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Plant level population education programs are currently operating in Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The major role of the ILO teams in development of these programs was to encourage government, employer , and labor leadership support for the program. Administrative and manageial staff support is also needed to ensure program success. Personnel managers make particularly effective agents for enlisting the support of managerial and administrative staff members.
Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.
[Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
[Unpublished] . 51 p.The purpose of the Evaluation Mission of the Project, Assistance to the Manpower Division, Ghana, was as follows: to evaluate the project activities with particular attention to the implementation of the project's immediate and longterm objectives; to identify the factors which may adversely influence the project implementation and the use of project outputs for national planning and manpower policies; and to describe the current institutional framework for manpower planning and policies. The Evaluation Mission took place between October 14 and November 2, 1974. This report covers the evaluation of the project (formulation of the project and project implementation, work plan, experts' working relationships, the project coordinator, the UN volunteers, the participation of national counterparts in the implementation of the project, the implementation of the fellowship program, the delivery of vehicles and other equipment, training of the national counterparts, and a seminar for government officials); and institutional framework for manpower planning in Ghana (the Ghana Manpower Board, the Committee of the Manpower Board, the meetings of the Board, the role of the manpower division, the manpower division responsibilities in relation to the project, and the future trend in the development of the manpower division). It was the impression of the Evaluation Mission that the Project as a whole is still not in full operation. Only limited progress has been made toward achieving the immediate objectives of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and International Labor Organization (ILO) assistance to the Manpower Division, Ministry of Economic Planning. There was general agreement that the implementation of the Project outlined in the work plan is not proceeding satisfactorily, and urgent action must be taken to improve the management of the project, to define accurately the administrative and executive responsibilities, and to strengthen the efficiency of day-to-day working activities. A serious shortcoming is the inherent inconsistency of the final Project Document. The links between the long range and the immediate objectives are, to a certain extent, represented by the training activities but have received no attention by the Project Coordinator. The Project's fellowship program is behind schedule. UN volunteers are not being well utilized. Detailed recommendations are included.