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Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1986 Jan. 83 p.The educational activities of the International Labor Organization's (ILO) Population and Labor Policies Program was launched in the early 1970s. It's spectrum includes: promotion of information and education activities devoted to population and family planning questions at various levels, particularly by means of workers' education, labor welfare, and cooperative and rural institutions' programs; policy- oriented research on the demographic aspects of measures of social policy in certain fields, such as employment and social security; and efforts to stimulate participation by social security and enterprise- level medical services in the promotion of family planning. At the outset, the ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of educational activities in selected countries. Slowly, the concept of an ILO population-oriented program developed, and regional labor and population teams were established. At the next stage, regional advisers extended their activities to the national level. Project descriptions are included for the countries of India, Jordan, Kiribati, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Nepal, Congo, Zambia, and the Philippines.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
Report on a WHO meetings: Steering Committee Meeting of the Task Force on Child Labor and Health, Bombay, India: 21-26 May 1984.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1985. 14 p. (MCH/85.2)This report records the proceedings of a WHO meeting on child labor and health held in Bombay, India, May 28-29, 1984. The objectives of the meeting were to define the possible health implications of child labor, to make recommendations for inter-sectoral action, to promote greater collaboration among individuals and groups in the field of child labor, and to promote inter-sectoral and multi-disciplinary research in child labor and health, including the provision of technical support for national action. Reports were given of national workshops on child labor in Bombay and Nairobi, and research projects in progress in Bombay, Nairobi, and Hyderabad were reviewed. The meeting also discussed the WHO inter-regional workshop in Bombay, May 21-26, 1984. Points emerging from the workshop included suggestions for how the Task Force could best promote research and actions at the local and national level, and consideration was also given on how to improve future workshops. Other aspects of the inter-regional workshop discussed at the meeting were proposals for future research, workshop training materials, and promotion of national and regional workshops. The Steering Committee designated additional linkages with Governmental agencies, NGOs, and international organizations as one of its areas for action, along with dissemination of information to raise general community awareness of child labor and its health implications. The Occupational Health Unit of WHO in Geneva is organizing a study group on "The Health of Working Children" which is to meet in Geneva from October 14-18, 1985. It was recommended that the composition of the Steering Committee be broadened to include additional disciplines and agencies. The next Steering Committee meeting should occur within 12-24 months.