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Pretoria, South Africa, Dept. of National Health and Population Development, Council for Population Development, 1991 Jun. 21 p.This booklet presents 1987 data on global population growth estimates and reiterates some of the main points of the Amsterdam Declaration adopted at the International Forum on Population in the 21st Century. These resolutions recognized mankind's responsibility to the future; acknowledged the link between population, resources, and the environment; expressed concern about rapid growth, especially in the developing world; recognized the central role of women in the development process; and defined the goal of development as improvement in the quality of life. The specter of unrelenting population growth is then considered from the point of view of South Africa, which has an annual growth rate of 2% and a population doubling time of 32 years. The booklet then describes South Africa's Population Development Programme, which was instituted in 1984 to maintain a balance between growth and subsistence resources. Each aspect of the program (education, primary health care, job creation, manpower development, the role of women, rural development, and housing) is then discussed in detail with important concepts defined and the ways in which organizations and individuals can contribute to the realization of the goals delineated.
[Crisis, economic policy reforms and employment in Yaounde] Crise, reformes des politiques economiques et emploi a Yaounde.
Paris, France, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED], 2001 Sep. 35 p. (Dossiers du CEPED No. 64)Cameroon has experienced economic recession since 1987, from which it is now only barely emerging. This paper examines the impact of the economic crisis and economic reforms implemented to improve the situation upon employment in Yaounde. Results are based upon the analysis of data drawn from a literature review of research upon the problem, conducted in Yaounde during November-December 1996, by CEPED and IFORD. The study explored labor market access, job losses, and unemployment. The economic crisis and subsequent corrective measures were found to have a disastrous impact upon employment in the city, restricting young people’s access to jobs, particularly in the public sector, and provoking numerous layoffs especially in the modern employment sector. The number of job layoffs increased throughout the implementation of stabilization and internal adjustment measures recommended by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. These job losses and limited access to job markets increased unemployment levels among the city’s youth. Neither stabilization and adjustment measures, nor currency devaluation stimulated employment in Yaounde, a city in which available human resources are currently underutilized.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)