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Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 3. Regional instruments: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Americas. Provisional release.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov.  p.The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 2006 Jan 31; 11(1): p..In Zambia, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has greatly increased in the last 10 years. This article describes Zambia and highlights the country's use of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals as a framework to guide TB treatment programmes. An overview of TB in Zambia is provided. Data related to TB cases at the county's main referral hospital, the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), is discussed. Treatment policies and barriers are described. Zambian nurses have been greatly affected by the rise in the morbidity and mortality of nurses with TB. This article explains the impact of TB on the Zambian nursing workforce. Review of Zambian government programmes designed to address this health crisis and targeted interventions to reduce TB among nurses are offered. (author's)
[Unpublished] 2003. Strategy paper for the Global Compact Policy Dialogue on HIV / AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland, May 12-13, 2003. 4 p.Successful businesses are those that adapt to the changing environment in which they operate: this could include changes in technology, legislation, markets or labour supply. HIV/AIDS is now a factor that companies must take into account in their planning and operations. It has been clear for some time that many companies are affected in two main ways: production is disrupted and productivity reduced at the same time as direct labour costs are rising. Productivity is affected by the loss of skilled and experienced workers, by absenteeism, and by falling workplace morale, including the loss of confidence in companies who take no action in high-prevalence situations. Rising costs include medical treatment, funeral costs, insurance, and the costs of replacing, training and retraining staff. (excerpt)
Pretoria, South Africa, Dept. of National Health and Population Development, Council for Population Development, 1991 Jun. 21 p.This booklet presents 1987 data on global population growth estimates and reiterates some of the main points of the Amsterdam Declaration adopted at the International Forum on Population in the 21st Century. These resolutions recognized mankind's responsibility to the future; acknowledged the link between population, resources, and the environment; expressed concern about rapid growth, especially in the developing world; recognized the central role of women in the development process; and defined the goal of development as improvement in the quality of life. The specter of unrelenting population growth is then considered from the point of view of South Africa, which has an annual growth rate of 2% and a population doubling time of 32 years. The booklet then describes South Africa's Population Development Programme, which was instituted in 1984 to maintain a balance between growth and subsistence resources. Each aspect of the program (education, primary health care, job creation, manpower development, the role of women, rural development, and housing) is then discussed in detail with important concepts defined and the ways in which organizations and individuals can contribute to the realization of the goals delineated.
[Unpublished] 1989 Dec. , 36,  p. (ADB/BD/WP/89/142; ADF/BD/WP/89/133; Doc. 0086F)This policy paper on Women in Development (WID) by the African Development Bank presents the policy of the Bank Group on integration of women into the development process. It highlights the sectors in which the Bank Group will intervene for women in this lending, technical assistance and training operations. The 6 chapters deal with the background, rationale and objectives of the policy, the role of women in African development, the constraints on women, and responses of international, donor, regional and national agencies to the issue of WID. A review of the activity of African women in agriculture, food production and processing, fishing, informal sector production, education, health, water, environment, and sanitation describes their significant if unacknowledged role. Constraints of illiteracy, lack of education and vocational training, lack of access to materials, marketing, storage, transportation, bookkeeping and management, and the overall legal, cultural and social barriers add up to low participation by women in decision-making processes in society. The last 2 chapters focus on the Bank Group's policy and strategies for the integration of women into the development process. They are categorized by the sectors: agriculture, formal and informal sector of industry, environment, water and sanitation, education, and health. Sector policies and lending operations will have gender dimensions, regional member countries will be encouraged to desegregate data by gender, and gender impact assessments will be undertaken when possible. General areas where WID policies are pertinent also include: vocational training, health, access to credit, staff development, international coordination, and information. Only concerted and sustained collaborative effort between the Bank Group and member countries' decision and policy makers will ensure successful implementation of the policy.
[Crisis, economic policy reforms and employment in Yaounde] Crise, reformes des politiques economiques et emploi a Yaounde.
Paris, France, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED], 2001 Sep. 35 p. (Dossiers du CEPED No. 64)Cameroon has experienced economic recession since 1987, from which it is now only barely emerging. This paper examines the impact of the economic crisis and economic reforms implemented to improve the situation upon employment in Yaounde. Results are based upon the analysis of data drawn from a literature review of research upon the problem, conducted in Yaounde during November-December 1996, by CEPED and IFORD. The study explored labor market access, job losses, and unemployment. The economic crisis and subsequent corrective measures were found to have a disastrous impact upon employment in the city, restricting young people’s access to jobs, particularly in the public sector, and provoking numerous layoffs especially in the modern employment sector. The number of job layoffs increased throughout the implementation of stabilization and internal adjustment measures recommended by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. These job losses and limited access to job markets increased unemployment levels among the city’s youth. Neither stabilization and adjustment measures, nor currency devaluation stimulated employment in Yaounde, a city in which available human resources are currently underutilized.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 5,  p.In this document, the South African delegation, represented by Ms. Luci Abrahams, Director General of the Department of Welfare of South Africa, addresses the 32nd session of the UN Commission on Population and Development. The South African delegation finds the document "Proposals for the Further Implementation of the Program of Action of the ICPD" a particularly useful and forward-looking piece. Population programs, population growth, and the structure of population dynamics in South Africa have largely been driven by a swift demographic transition, especially among the majority African population. The goal of the South African population policy is to change the determinants of the national population dynamics in order that these trends may be consistent with the achievement of sustainable development. In her final statement Ms. Abrahams concludes that the first five years of South Africa's implementation of the Program of Action have largely entailed the creation of an enabling environment through policy formulation.
SERVIR. 1995 Sep-Oct; 43(5):270-2.A seminar of the International Labor Organization (ILO) was held to shed light on the role of AIDS in decimating qualified professionals in Anglophone Africa. The estimates of the World Health Organization indicate that the number of people infected with HIV in the whole world was 13-15 million persons at the end of 1994, of which 8 million lived in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda it is calculated that 1.5 million people are carriers of HIV, and by 1998 this figure could increase to 1.9 million. In both Zambia and Zimbabwe, in the 20-39 year age group, AIDS cases amount to 70% and 74%, respectively. Studies carried out in Rwanda, Zaire, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe revealed that AIDS is most frequent among members of the higher socioeconomic classes. The inability to find replacements for jobs requiring higher qualifications will result in dire consequences for these economies. During the 6-year period between 1988-89 and 1993-94 the Uganda Commercial Bank registered 229 deaths due to AIDS among its 1600 employees (14%). AIDS also requires the expenditure of scarce health resources on treatment: in 1992, hospital occupancy for diseases associated with AIDS reached 40-60% in Kinshasa, Zaire; 50% in Lusaka, Zambia; 60% in Kigali, Rwanda; and 70% in Bujumbura, Burundi. Various programs have been launched to fight HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Uganda, to sensitize and educate people about the epidemic. The protection of human rights, the avoidance of discrimination, and the adoption of safe sex techniques are promoted by these programs. Companies have programs to combat AIDS. Ubombo Ranches Ltd. in Swaziland started an information program in 1991 and distributed free condoms. BAT Uganda Ltd. also started an information and training-of-trainers program in 1989, which by 1994 had benefitted about 90% of the employees. This has resulted in the reduction of AIDS cases and associated medical costs.
Statistics and indicators on women in Africa. 1986. Statistiques et indicateurs sur les femmes en Afrique. 1986.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 225 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 7)This compendium provides statistics by country on a number of measures of women's status and participation in decision making in Africa. Chapters are devoted to statistics on population composition and distribution, households and families, economic participation and not in the labor force, national household income and expenditures, education and literacy, health and health services and disability, housing conditions and settlement patterns, political participation, and crime. The last chapter gives information on population statistics programs. The time reference period covers 1970-86. 31 statistical tables are given. Population estimates and projections use statistics available as of 1984 from the Compendium of Human Settlements Statistics and the Demographic Yearbook. First marriage is calculated on the basis of a single census or survey according to procedures described by Hajnal. The economically active population refers to work for pay or profit or availability for work. Employment includes enterprise workers, own-account workers, employees, unpaid family workers, members of cooperatives, and members of the armed forces. Attempts are made to more accurately present women's work, particularly for unpaid family work for production for own or household consumption and own-account workers. Occupational groups include professional, administrative, and clerical. Agricultural, industrial, and forestry workers are included in the total. Educational levels pertain to ages 5-7 and lasting about 5 years, ages 10-12 and lasting about 3 years, ages 13-15 and lasting 4 years, and ages 17-19 and lasting at least 3 or 4 years. Health indicators include mortality and survival rates, causes of death, selection female measures, cigarette consumption, and disability. Housing is differentiated by availability of electricity, piped water, and toilets. Women's political participation refers to representation in parliamentary assemblies and as professional staff in the UN Secretariat. Crime includes arrests and prison population. Population programs include data collection in censuses, household surveys conducted under the UN Survey Capability Program, and civil registration systems.
PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1995; 4(3):18-9.In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors.
WORLD OF WORK. 1995 May-Jun; (12):32-3.Representatives of English speaking African countries attended the International Labor Organization Tripartite Workshop on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and the Prevention of AIDS held in Uganda. AIDS has robbed these countries of lawyers, physicians, teachers, managers, and other skilled professionals, all of whom are difficult to replace. HIV/AIDS mainly affects persons in their most productive years (20-40 years) and in the higher socioeconomic groups. Professionals with AIDS become ill and die at a faster rate than their replacements can be trained. The young, less experienced work force translates into an increase in breakdowns, accidents, delays, and misjudgments. International and national efforts to control HIV/AIDS have not stopped the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More than 8 million persons in SSA are HIV infected. 1.5 million in Uganda are HIV infected. As of October 1994, 30,000 persons in Zambia and 33,000 in Zimbabwe had AIDS. These numbers are just the tip of the iceberg due to underreporting. HIV/AIDS increases absenteeism among infected and healthy workers alike. It burdens the already existing scarce health care resources and equipment (e.g., in 1992, AIDS cases occupied 70% of hospital beds in Kigali, Rwanda). Unions, workers, and families must share knowledge about safer sex. The Zimbabwe Confederation of Trade Unions has had an HIV/AIDS education program since 1992. The Zambia Congress of Trade Unions strongly supports government efforts to sensitize the labor force and society to the effects of HIV/AIDS. The Federation of Uganda Employers has reached about 150,000 workers and more than 200 top executives through its AIDS prevention activities. Some company programs provide medical facilities for employees and their families. The Ubombo Ranches, Ltd. in Swaziland, a producer and processor of sugar cane, has a training-of-trainers program on HIV/AIDS and family planning for all village health workers and village headmen.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:161.The Government of Cameroon ratified the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention on 13 May 1988. (full text)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. , 156 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 102; World Bank Discussion Papers Africa Technical Department Series)As a companion volume to the first volume on trends and characteristics of migration and the relationship to development issues, this paper for each of 42 Sub-Saharan countries reviews demographic and migration patterns, policies, labor markets, agriculture, remittances, education/brain drain, refugees, and health as appropriate. The reduced tables by country include basic economic and demographic indicators for Sub-Saharan countries, a summary of the stock of migrants by source and destination countries, determinants and intermediate effects of the remittance system, government policies toward population distribution and mobility in terms of acceptance, refugees in need of protection.assistance annually 1985-88, asylum and source countries ranked by refugee stocks for 1988, and significant voluntary repatriations. The data were obtained primarily from census reports; however, the data reflect a time range between 1967 and 1982, undocumented migrants may or may not have been included, and guests may have been excluded from the surveys. Some preliminary analyses revealed that the relationship between the growth of aggregate gross domestic (or national) product and the stock of migrants was insignificant, and that the negative relationship between economic performance and stock of emigrants was not supported. Analysis did show that West African regions have significantly higher proportions of immigrants at the .012 level. Future research might explore the finding that countries with large immigrant populations have higher natural rates of population growth, excluding growth from immigration. Another finding was that enrolled primary school children in the country of origin are negatively related to the stock of emigrants as a percentage of resident population of that country. Finally, internal and external migration are interrelated. Further data collection is necessary because of the shortcomings of available data.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:136.The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.
FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1986 Jan. 83 p.The educational activities of the International Labor Organization's (ILO) Population and Labor Policies Program was launched in the early 1970s. It's spectrum includes: promotion of information and education activities devoted to population and family planning questions at various levels, particularly by means of workers' education, labor welfare, and cooperative and rural institutions' programs; policy- oriented research on the demographic aspects of measures of social policy in certain fields, such as employment and social security; and efforts to stimulate participation by social security and enterprise- level medical services in the promotion of family planning. At the outset, the ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of educational activities in selected countries. Slowly, the concept of an ILO population-oriented program developed, and regional labor and population teams were established. At the next stage, regional advisers extended their activities to the national level. Project descriptions are included for the countries of India, Jordan, Kiribati, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Nepal, Congo, Zambia, and the Philippines.
ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 1988 Winter; 4(2):43-8.Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd world as well as negative effects on tourism. The global underclass will be disproportionately affected by AIDS as the blacks and Hispanics already are in New York and Miami. Thus far, the reaction of donor countries to the World Health Organization's (WHO) appeal for funds to fight the battle against AIDS has been excellent. The global strategy of WHO places priority on national campaigns, but none of the national campaigns will be effective unless linked to similar actions in other nations to form a vigorous international program. The US has a special responsibility to provide international leadership on AIDS. The US is the world leader in AIDS research and has the bulk of the virus research capacity. Further, no country can come close to matching US experience in dealing with AIDS through "safe sex" education campaigns.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
In: Aspects of population change and development in some African and Asian countries. Cairo, Egypt, Cairo Demographic Centre, 1984. 43-56. (CDC Research Monograph Series no. 9)This paper examines the relationship between economic development and demographic change in the 13 states of the Economic Commission for West Asia (ECWA) region. Demographic variables considered include per capita income, proportion urban, proportion in urban areas with over 100,000 inhabitants, literacy among those over 15 years, and literacy among women. Unweighted rankings on these variables were added to produce a development ranking or general development index. Then this index was used to investigate the relationship between development and individual scores and rankings for various demographic indices. The development index exhibited a rough fit with the mortality indices, especially life expectancy at birth. Mortality decline appears to be most closely related to rise in income. At the same income level, countries that have experienced substantial social change tend to exhibit the lowest mortality, presumably because of a loosening in family role patterns. In contrast, the relationship between development and fertility measures seemed to be almost random. A far closer correlation was noted between the former and the general development index. It is concluded that economic development alone will not reduce fertility. Needed are 2 changes: 1) profound social change in the family and in women's status, achievable through increases in female education, and 2) government family planning programs to ensure access to contraception.
Report on a WHO meetings: Steering Committee Meeting of the Task Force on Child Labor and Health, Bombay, India: 21-26 May 1984.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1985. 14 p. (MCH/85.2)This report records the proceedings of a WHO meeting on child labor and health held in Bombay, India, May 28-29, 1984. The objectives of the meeting were to define the possible health implications of child labor, to make recommendations for inter-sectoral action, to promote greater collaboration among individuals and groups in the field of child labor, and to promote inter-sectoral and multi-disciplinary research in child labor and health, including the provision of technical support for national action. Reports were given of national workshops on child labor in Bombay and Nairobi, and research projects in progress in Bombay, Nairobi, and Hyderabad were reviewed. The meeting also discussed the WHO inter-regional workshop in Bombay, May 21-26, 1984. Points emerging from the workshop included suggestions for how the Task Force could best promote research and actions at the local and national level, and consideration was also given on how to improve future workshops. Other aspects of the inter-regional workshop discussed at the meeting were proposals for future research, workshop training materials, and promotion of national and regional workshops. The Steering Committee designated additional linkages with Governmental agencies, NGOs, and international organizations as one of its areas for action, along with dissemination of information to raise general community awareness of child labor and its health implications. The Occupational Health Unit of WHO in Geneva is organizing a study group on "The Health of Working Children" which is to meet in Geneva from October 14-18, 1985. It was recommended that the composition of the Steering Committee be broadened to include additional disciplines and agencies. The next Steering Committee meeting should occur within 12-24 months.
Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
Population issues in developing countries: their impact on industrial relations and human resources development.
Geneva, International Labour Office, 1979. 11 p.The population policy program of the International Labour Organization (ILO) was described, and the relationship between high fertility rates and labor supply, female labor force participation rates, and worker productivity was discussed. In the late 1960s the Governing Body of ILO, recognizing the implications for labor of rapid population growth, extended the ILO mandate to include education activities undertaken in accordance with naitonal poliicies. Population education for workers is vital as population growth directly affects worker welfare in a number of ways. In countries with rapid population growth, the labor supply often increases at a faster rate than the demand for labor. in Sri Lanka, the impact of population growth is clearly evidenced in the current 40% unemployment rate among urban males, aged 15-24. An oversupply of labor also has an impact on job security and on labor and management relationships. Some countries, faced with an overabundance of labor, have adopted policies to reduce capital intensive technological innovations and to increase the use of labor intensive technologies. This approach may temporarily decrease unemployement but it reduces industrial efficiency and ultimately retards industrial expansion. There is an inverse relationship between female labor force participation and fertility rates. If female labor force participation is encouraged, fetility rates will decline; however, the competition for female jobs will continue to increase beause larger cohorts of females born during the high fertility years will continue to enter the labor market for many years. There is some evidence that large family size has a negative impact on worker productivity. Knowledge of the macrolevel economic effects of high birthrates will not discourage individuals from having large families; however, an awareness of the problems engendered by large family size at the household level can exert an influence on an individual's fertility decisions. In 1970 ILO population activities were operationalized, and by 1978, 3 regional labor and population teams were working on projects in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Plant level population education programs are currently operating in Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The major role of the ILO teams in development of these programs was to encourage government, employer , and labor leadership support for the program. Administrative and manageial staff support is also needed to ensure program success. Personnel managers make particularly effective agents for enlisting the support of managerial and administrative staff members.
Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.
[Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
[Unpublished] . 51 p.The purpose of the Evaluation Mission of the Project, Assistance to the Manpower Division, Ghana, was as follows: to evaluate the project activities with particular attention to the implementation of the project's immediate and longterm objectives; to identify the factors which may adversely influence the project implementation and the use of project outputs for national planning and manpower policies; and to describe the current institutional framework for manpower planning and policies. The Evaluation Mission took place between October 14 and November 2, 1974. This report covers the evaluation of the project (formulation of the project and project implementation, work plan, experts' working relationships, the project coordinator, the UN volunteers, the participation of national counterparts in the implementation of the project, the implementation of the fellowship program, the delivery of vehicles and other equipment, training of the national counterparts, and a seminar for government officials); and institutional framework for manpower planning in Ghana (the Ghana Manpower Board, the Committee of the Manpower Board, the meetings of the Board, the role of the manpower division, the manpower division responsibilities in relation to the project, and the future trend in the development of the manpower division). It was the impression of the Evaluation Mission that the Project as a whole is still not in full operation. Only limited progress has been made toward achieving the immediate objectives of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and International Labor Organization (ILO) assistance to the Manpower Division, Ministry of Economic Planning. There was general agreement that the implementation of the Project outlined in the work plan is not proceeding satisfactorily, and urgent action must be taken to improve the management of the project, to define accurately the administrative and executive responsibilities, and to strengthen the efficiency of day-to-day working activities. A serious shortcoming is the inherent inconsistency of the final Project Document. The links between the long range and the immediate objectives are, to a certain extent, represented by the training activities but have received no attention by the Project Coordinator. The Project's fellowship program is behind schedule. UN volunteers are not being well utilized. Detailed recommendations are included.