Your search found 155 Results

  1. 1
    388355

    [Knowledge, attitudes and condom use skills among youth in Burkina Faso] Utilisation du preservatif masculin : connaissances, attitudes et competences de jeunes burkinabè.

    Yelian Adohinzin CC; Meda N; Gaston Belem AM; Ouedraogo GA; Berthe A; Sombie I; Avimadjenon GD; Diallo I; Fond-Harmant L

    Sante Publique. 2017 Mar 06; 29(1):95-103.

    Introduction: Condom use is recognized by the WHO as the only contraceptive that protects against both HIV / AIDS and unwanted pregnancies. But to be effective, condoms must be used consistently and correctly. The objective of this study was to assess young people's skills in male condom used, to identify the challenges faced by them when using condoms to better guide future interventions.Methods: Based on a two-level sampling representing 94,947 households within Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 youth aged between 15 and 24 were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the youth.Results: Only 24% of surveyed know how to accurately use condoms despite their knowledge of condom effectiveness and although some of them are exposed to awareness-raising and information campaigns. Indeed, various handling errors and usage problems (breakage, slippage, leakage and loss of erection) had been identified during the oral demonstration performed by the surveyed. The older youth and with the highest level of education were the most likely to demonstrate increased skills in condom use. Moreover, girls were less competent than boys in terms of condom use.Conclusion: It is important to increase awareness-raising and information campaigns, adapting the content to the real needs of young people so as to transmit the skills required for effective prevention particularly in regard to condom use.
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  2. 2
    372957

    Characterizing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa: time for strategic action.

    Abu-Raddad LJ; Akala FA; Semini I; Riedner G; Wilson D; Tawil O

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010. [304] p. (World Bank Report No. 54889)

    This study is a continuation of the previous sector review, conducted in 2004. The 2008 review had two main objectives. This review is primarily an update on the situation. In its development strategy, Benin gave considerable importance to the health of its population. This effort is part of the long-term vision of the country. Improving health status, especially for the poor, is one of eight strategic directions for that vision. Similarly, on a more operational level, this objective is reflected in the current Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction (GPRS 2007-2009). Benin is particularly committed towards the Millennium Development Goals, including 3 on the health sector. This review was also an opportunity to further analyze the constraints in the health system, consistent with the new strategy Health Nutrition and Population World Bank, Strategy adopted in 2007. But this exercise was not intended merely to be analytical. It also aimed to enrich the political dialogue between, on one hand, the actors in health and, secondly, the World Bank and other development partners. This effort relates more specifically to some themes such as governance, private sector involvement and alignment of partners' efforts (called technical and financial partners in Benin or PTFs). From this perspective, the journal is also a contribution to Benin's efforts to advance the IHP (International Health Partnership Plus). This initiative is now the main tool for implementing the Paris Declaration. In practice, the journal has sought to contribute to the consensus between the Ministry of Health and the donor group on the diagnosis of the health system and the changes needed to strengthen it. Several guidelines have emerged stronger from this discussion, particularly in the area of governance of the health system. Beyond the reinforcement of the various components of the health system, two fundamental principles should guide the transformation of this system: 1) A principle of corporate governance: through decentralization of the health system, health facilities must have their basic needs better taken into account (hence the need for bottom-up planning) and especially as more independent financially administrative; and 2) A principle of individual governance: health workers should be strongly encouraged to improve their performance (competence, productivity and compliance of patients). Given the limited success of measures to strengthen inspections and other controls "top-down, this incentive can only come from clients, either directly (i.e., bonuses based on cost recovery), or preferably indirectly with a mechanism for payment by results funded by the state and possibly partners.
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  3. 3
    371987

    The effectiveness of the WHO training course on complementary feeding counseling in a primary care setting, Ismailia, Egypt.

    El-Sayed H; Martines J; Rakha M; Zekry O; Abdel-Hak M; Abbas H

    Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2014 Apr; 89(1):1-8.

    BACKGROUND: The adequacy and timing of complementary feeding of the breastfed child are critical for optimal child growth and development.Considerable efforts have been made to improve complementary feeding in the first 2 years of life. One of them was the WHO complementary feeding counseling course (CFC). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO CFC on knowledge and counseling abilities of primary healthcare physicians; on caretaker's knowledge and adherence to physicians' recommendations and their feeding practices; and on children's growth. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A single-blinded randomized-controlled study was carried out in 40 primary healthcare centers divided into matched pairs according to their location, either in rural or urban areas, and training of the selected physicians on integrated management of childhood illness. One center from each pair was selected randomly for its physician to receive CFC training in nutrition counseling and the matched center was selected as a control. Forty primary healthcare center physicians and 480 mother-child (6-18 months) pairs were included in the study. The mother-child pairs recruited were visited at home within 2 weeks, 90, and 180 days after the initial consultation with trained health workers. Special questionnaires were used to collect information on healthcare providers' knowledge of nutrition counseling and practice (counseling skills); maternal knowledge of basic nutrition-counseling recommendations, maternal compliance with the recommended feeding practice; child dietary intake; and gains in weight and length. RESULTS: CFC-trained physicians were more likely to engage in nutrition counseling and to deliver more appropriate advice. This was reflected in improvements in maternal recall of complementary feeding messages, which were higher in the intervention group compared with the control group. Six months after the consultation, children in the intervention group had significantly greater weight gains compared with the control group (0.96 vs. 0.78 kg; P=0.038). Children in the intervention group, who were 12-18 months of age at the time of recruitment, had significantly less faltering in length gain compared with the control group (height/age Z-score; 0.23 vs. 0.04; P=0.004). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Nutrition counseling training improved counseling abilities of primary healthcare physicians and led to improvements in mothers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding. In turn, this led to improved growth of children. We recommend wide and regular utilization of the CFC course to improve the knowledge and skills of health workers who provide counseling to mothers for complementary feeding.
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  4. 4
    340960

    Investing in knowledge for resilient health systems. Strategic plan 2016-2019.

    World Health Organizations [WHO]; Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. [16] p. (WHO/HIS/HSR/16.1)

    On its own, the availability of more and better knowledge about health systems does little to change how that information is used to strengthen the performance of health systems. By engaging national and local decision-makers, health policy and systems researchers, scientists from other disciplines, health workers and implementers, development partners, donors and civil society, the Alliance is seeking improved results that are more sustainable, translatable across contexts, and available for all communities. It builds partnerships with institutions that share its mission: to strengthen the health systems in low- and middle-income countries by promoting the generation and use of health policy and systems research. This strategy outlines a challenging and exciting agenda to provide a unique forum for decision-makers in health policy and systems research, support institutional capacity for training and mentorship, stimulate knowledge generation and innovation, and encourage the demand for and use of research. In this way, the Alliance plays a unique role in serving local and global communities to strengthen health system development and contribute to the SDGs. It is indeed changing mindsets. [Excerpt]
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  5. 5
    367020
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementation of the WHO safe childbirth checklist program at a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka: a developing country experience.

    Patabendige M; Senanayake H

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2015; 15:12.

    BACKGROUND: To study institutionalization of the World Health Organization's Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) in a tertiary care center in Sri Lanka. METHOD: A hospital-based, prospective observational study was conducted in the De Soysa Hospital for Women, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Healthcare workers were educated regarding the SCC, which was to be used for each woman admitted to the labor room during the study period. A qualitatively pretested, self-administered questionnaire was given to all nursing and midwifery staff to assess knowledge and attitudes towards the checklist. Each item of the SCC was reviewed for adherence. RESULTS: A total of 824 births in which the checklist used were studied. There were a total of births 1800 during the period, giving an adoption rate of 45.8%. Out of the 170 health workers in the hospital (nurses, midwives and nurse midwives) 98 answered the questionnaire (response rate = 57.6%). The average number of childbirth practices checked in the checklist was 21 out of 29 (95% CI 20.2, 21.3). Educating the mother to seek help during labor, after delivery and after discharge from hospital, seeking an assistant during labor, early breast-feeding, maternal HIV infection and discussing contraceptive options were checked least often. The mean level of knowledge on the checklist among health workers was 60.1% (95% CI 57.2, 63.1). Attitudes for acceptance of using the checklist were satisfactory. Average adherence to checklist practices was 71.3%. Sixty eight (69.4%) agreed that the Checklist stimulates inter-personal communication and teamwork. Increased workload, poor enthusiasm of health workers towards new additions to their routine schedule and level of user-friendliness of Checklist were limitations to its greater use. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst users, the attitude towards the checklist was satisfactory. Adoption rate amongst all workers was 45.8% and knowledge regarding the checklist was 60.1%. These two factors are probably linked. Therefore prior to introducing it to a facility awareness about the value and correct use of the SCC needs to be increased, while giving attention to satisfactory staffing levels.
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  6. 6
    385625
    Peer Reviewed

    Feasibility and validity of using WHO adolescent job aid algorithms by health workers for reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls in rural North India.

    Archana S; Nongkrynh B; Anand K; Pandav CS

    BMC Health Services Research. 2015 Sep 21; 15(1):400.

    Background: High prevalence of reproductive morbidities is seen among adolescents in India. Health workers play an important role in providing health services in the community, including the adolescent reproductive health services. A study was done to assess the feasibility of training female health workers (FHWs) in the classification and management of selected adolescent girls' reproductive health problems according to modified WHO algorithms. Methods: The study was conducted between Jan-Sept 2011 in Northern India. Thirteen FHWs were trained regarding adolescent girls' reproductive health as per WHO Adolescent Job-Aid booklet. A pre and post-test assessment of the knowledge of the FHWs was carried out. All FHWs were given five modified WHO algorithms to classify and manage common reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls. All the FHWs applied the algorithms on at least ten adolescent girls at their respective sub-centres. Simultaneously, a medical doctor independently applied the same algorithms in all girls. Classification of the condition was followed by relevant management and advice provided in the algorithm. Focus group discussion with the FHWs was carried out to receive their feedback. Results: After training the median score of the FHWs increased from 19.2 to 25.2 (p - 0.0071). Out of 144 girls examined by the FHWs 108 were classified as true positives and 30 as true negatives and agreement as measured by kappa was 0.7 (0.5-0.9). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 94.3 % (88.2-97.4), 78.9 % (63.6-88.9), 92.5 % (86.0-96.2), and 83.3 % (68.1-92.1) respectively. Discussion: A consistent and significant difference between pre and post training knowledge scores of the FHWs were observed and hence it was possible to use the modified Job Aid algorithms with ease. Limitation of this study was the munber of FHWs trained was small. Issues such as time management during routine work, timing of training, overhead cost of training etc were not taken into account. Conclusions: Training was successful in increasing the knowledge of the FHWs about adolescent girls' reproductive health issues. The FHWs were able to satisfactorily classify the common adolescent girls' problems using the modified WHO algorithms.
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  7. 7
    335517

    The art of knowledge exchange: A results-focused planning guide for development practitioners. 2nd ed.

    Kumar S; Leonard A; Watkins R; Vovides Y; Kerby B

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013. [174] p.

    Knowledge exchange, or peer-to-peer learning, is a powerful way to share, replicate, and scale-up what works in development. Development practitioners increasingly seek to learn from the experiences of others who have gone through, or are going through, similar challenges. They want to have ready access to practical knowledge and solutions and enhance their confidence, conviction, and skills to customize the solutions to their own context. The second edition of the Art of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners follows a strategic approach to learning and breaks down the knowledge exchange process into five simple steps. It also provides tools you need to design your knowledge exchange and practical guidance on how to use them to get the results you want from your knowledge exchange. This second edition contains a full revision of the original Art of Knowledge Exchange as well as new chapters on implementation and results of knowledge exchanges. The Guide also distills lessons from over 100 exchanges financed by South-South Facility, analytical work conducted by the World Bank Institute, and the Task Team for South-South Cooperation, and reflects the rich experiences of World Bank staff, learning professionals, government officials, and other practitioners engaged in South-South knowledge exchange activities.
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  8. 8
    334460

    Handbook for supporting the development of health system guidance. Supporting informed judgements for health system policies.

    Bosch-Capblanch X

    Basel, Switzerland, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 2011 Jul. [176] p.

    This handbook, commissioned by the WHO, describes the processes, approaches and outputs for developing health system guidance and is compliant with the existing ‘WHO handbook for guideline development’ (WHO Guidelines Review Committee (GRC)) and is the equivalent of the handbook to support the development of clinical guidelines for health systems guidance. It is based on a preliminary work that established the rationale and framework for health systems guidance and it is inspired by global trends encouraging to bridge the gap between research and policy and practice through knowledge translation. The handbook has been produced by a core team supported by the GRC staff, supported by a Task Force specifically set up for this project. The handbook deals with the process of developing full guidance, rather than the processes to adopt, adapt or endorse guidance developed by third parties. (Excerpt)
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  9. 9
    334266

    Strategy on health policy and systems research: changing mindsets.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. [50] p.

    This document has three broad aims. First, it seeks to unify the worlds of research and decision-making and connect the various disciplines of research that generate knowledge to inform and strengthen health systems. Second, the strategy contributes to a broader understanding of this field by clarifying the scope and role of HPSR. It provides insight into the dynamic processes through which HPSR evidence is generated and used in decision-making. Finally, it is hoped that this strategy will serve as an agent for change and calls for a more prominent role for HPSR at a time when the health systems mandate is evolving towards broader goals of universal health coverage and equity. This strategy on health policy and systems research is intended to augment and amplify WHO’s previous affirmations on the importance of health research, by explaining how this evolving field is sensitive and responsive to the needs of those who are responsible for the planning and performance of national health systems -- decision-makers, health practitioners, citizens and civil society.
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  10. 10
    360213

    [Prevalence of HIV infection and associated factors in the Central African Republic in 2010] Prévalence de l’infection VIH et facteurs associés en République Centrafricaine en 2010.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. Bangui; ICF International. MEASURE DHS

    Calverton, Maryland, ICF International, 2012 Apr. [72] p.

    Nearly 68 percent of all HIV-positive individuals worldwide live in Sub-Saharan Africa. The region remains the most severely affected in the world, even though only 12 percent of the world's population lives there. Central Africa, which is less afflicted than Southern and Eastern Africa, nevertheless has a high enough level of infection for it to be characterized as a generalized epidemic. This is the case in the Central African Republic. The Central African Republic has long lacked reliable data on the epidemic, which has slowed the national response that otherwise would have occurred with more factual data. In response to the perceived need, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have financed HIV testing in two multiple indicator cluster surveys--the 2006 MICS and 2010 MICS. This partnership has led to collection of reliable data to monitor trends in HIV prevalence and distribution among the population age 15 to 49. Also monitored are distribution of the epidemic by geographic region and population group. Because the decrease in HIV prevalence between 2006 and 2010 will be interpreted as an encouraging sign of progress, it is important to remain vigilant. The disaggregated results show that the epidemic continues to grow in scope and provokes disastrous consequences in certain groups. For the first time since 2006, the Central African Republic has reliable data to inform decision-making and intervention planning. These data have permitted the pandemic areas in the Central African Republic to emerge from the shadows. For the future, we wish to put in place systematic HIV testing similar to that of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). The UNFPA office in the Central African Republic is committed to improving knowledge about HIV and reinforcing the availability of information for planning, implementation, and follow-up of the country's National Strategic Plan for the Fight against AIDS.
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  11. 11
    354057
    Peer Reviewed

    Defining empowerment: perspectives from international development organisations.

    Hennink M; Kiiti N; Pillinger M; Jayakaran R

    Development in Practice. 2012 Apr; 22(2):202-215.

    Empowerment has become a mainstream concept in international development but lacks clear definition, which can undermine development initiatives aimed at strengthening empowerment as a route to poverty reduction. In the present article, written narratives from 49 international development organisations identify how empowerment is defined and operationalised in community initiatives. Results show a conceptual framework of empowerment comprising six mechanisms that foster empowerment (knowledge; agency; opportunity; capacity-building; resources; and sustainability), five domains of empowerment (health; economic; political; resource; and spiritual), and three levels (individual; community; and organisational). A key finding is the interdependence between components, indicating important programmatic implications for development initiatives.
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  12. 12
    333828

    The art of knowledge exchange: a results-focused planning guide for development practitioners.

    Kumar S; Leonard A

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, [2011]. [94] p. (\)

    Designing and implementing knowledge exchange initiatives can be a big undertaking. This guide takes the guesswork out of the process by breaking it down into simple steps and providing tools to help you play a more effective role as knowledge connector and learning facilitator. It will help you: identify and assess capacity development needs; design and develop an appropriate knowledge exchange initiative that responds to those needs; implement the knowledge exchange initiative; measure and report the results.
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  13. 13
    333751

    Learning about how to communicate 'learning' from and within a multi-sited organisation.

    Perkins NI

    Brighton, United Kingdom, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS], 2011 Sep. [10] p. (IDS Practice Paper in Brief 7; ILT Brief 7)

    This paper draws on a study conducted on capturing innovation and lessons from across a ‘multi-sited’ organisation. The lessons in question were about effective social protection programmes, however the paper focuses on the general principles of learning in an international organisation spread across many countries. The study was undertaken in collaboration with UNICEF and Irish Aid. The implementing team developed an action research programme exploring how to capture, share and use findings and lessons, in an organisation like UNICEF. The paper describes the processes and limitations of studies like this in building an institutional learning environment.
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  14. 14
    352945
    Peer Reviewed

    Development of vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women: WHO MALVAC meeting report.

    Menendez C; Moorthy VS; Reed Z; Bardaji A; Alonso P; Brown GV

    Expert Review of Vaccines. 2011 Sep; 10(9):1271-80.

    The major public health consequences of malaria in pregnancy have long been acknowledged. However, further information is still required for development and implementation of a malaria vaccine specifically directed to prevent malaria in pregnant women and improve maternal, fetal and infant outcomes. The WHO Malaria Vaccine Advisory Committee (MALVAC) provides guidance to the WHO on strategic priorities and research needs for development of vaccines to prevent malaria. Here we summarize the discussions and conclusions of a MALVAC scientific forum meeting on considerations in the development of vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women. This report includes brief summaries of what is known, and major knowledge gaps in disease burden estimation, pathogenesis and immunity, and the challenges with current preventive strategies for malaria in pregnancy. We conclude with the formulation of a conceptual framework for research and development for vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women.
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  15. 15
    333327

    Securing the future today. Synthesis of strategic information on HIV and young people.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Interagency Task Team on HIV and Young People

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Aug. [112] p. (UNAIDS/ JC2112E)

    This report shows that these global commitments will be achieved only if the unique needs of young women and men are acknowledged, and their human rights fulfilled, respected, and protected. In order to reduce new HIV infections among young people, achieve the broader equity goals set out in the MDGs, and begin to reverse the overall HIV epidemic, HIV prevention and treatment efforts must be tailored to the specific needs of young people.
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  16. 16
    348539
    Peer Reviewed

    Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.

    Harrington C

    Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2011 Apr; 52(1):29-41.

    This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs 'knowledge networks' to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste.
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  17. 17
    333307
    Peer Reviewed

    Communities of practice: The missing link for knowledge management on implementation issues in low-income countries?

    Meessen B; Kouanda S; Musango L; Richard F; Ridde V; Soucat A

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2011 Aug; 16(8):1007-1014. [

    The implementation of policies remains a huge challenge in many low-income countries. Several factors play a role in this, but improper management of existing knowledge is no doubt a major issue. In this article, we argue that new platforms should be created that gather all stakeholders who hold pieces of relevant knowledge for successful policies. To build our case, we capitalize on our experience in our domain of practice, health care financing in sub-Saharan Africa. We recently adopted a community of practice strategy in the region. More in general, we consider these platforms as the way forward for knowledge management of implementation issues.
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  18. 18
    332079

    Public health, innovation and intellectual property: Report of the Expert Working Group on Research and Development Financing.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Working Group on Research and Development Financing

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2009 Dec 23. 19 p. (EB126/6 Add.1)

    There is persistent and growing concern that the benefits of the advances in health technology are not reaching the poor. The emphasis of the developed world is naturally on the solution of the problems that affect it predominantly. This is in spite of the evidence of the heavy burden of disease on the poor, which in addition to being one of the more egregious manifestations of inequity, could undoubtedly affect overall global stability. There is convincing evidence of the poor bearing a double burden of disease, but there is still no indication of adequate research and development to address the Type II and III diseases. This growing focus on the diseases of the poor has led to examination of the relationship between intellectual property rights, innovation and public health, and the gap in the innovation cycle with the concern that the commercial incentives provided by intellectual property rights have not resulted in sufficient improvements in public health in developing countries or to access to the benefits of innovations that take place in the developed world. The Director-General of WHO established an expert working group to address some of these challenges in the context of the Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property.
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  19. 19
    343612
    Peer Reviewed

    Estimating the level of HIV prevention coverage, knowledge and protective behavior among injecting drug users: what does the 2008 UNGASS reporting round tell us?

    Mathers BM; Degenhardt L; Adam P; Toskin I; Nashkhoev M; Lyerla R; Rugg D

    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2009 Dec; 52 Suppl 2:S132-42.

    OBJECTIVES: The 2001 Declaration of Commitment from the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) set the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) as an important priority in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. This article examines data gathered to monitor the fulfillment of this commitment in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where resources to develop an effective response to HIV are limited and where injecting drug use is reported to occur in 99 (of 147) countries, home to 75% of the estimated 15.9 million global IDU population. METHODS: Data relating to injecting drug use submitted by LMICs to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in the 2008 reporting round for monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS were reviewed. The quality of the data reported was assessed and country data were aggregated and compared to determine progress in HIV prevention efforts. For each indicator, the mean value weighted for the size of each country's IDU population was determined; regional estimates were also made. RESULTS: Reporting was inconsistent between countries. Forty percent of LMIC (40/99), where injecting occurs, reported data for 1 or more of the 5 indicators pertinent to HIV prevention among IDUs. Many of the data reported were excluded from this analysis because the indicators used by countries were not consistent with those defined by UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group and could not be compared. Data from 32 of 99 countries met our inclusion criteria. These 32 countries account for approximately two-thirds (68%) of the total estimated IDU population in all LMICs.The IDU population weighted means are as follows: 36% of IDUs tested for HIV in the last year; 26% of IDUs reached with HIV prevention programs in the last year; 45% of IDUs with correct HIV prevention knowledge; 37% of IDUs used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 63% of IDUs used a clean syringe at last injection. Marked variance was observed in the data reported between different regions. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the 2008 United Nations General Assembly Special Session reporting round provide a baseline against which future progress might be measured. The data indicate a wide variation in HIV service coverage for IDUs and a wide divergence in HIV knowledge and risk behaviors among IDUs in different countries. Countries should be encouraged and assisted in monitoring and reporting on HIV prevention for IDUs.
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  20. 20
    341907

    Helping women understand contraceptive effectiveness.

    Shears KH; Aradhya KW

    Mera. 2008 Sep; iii-vi.

    When a woman chooses a contraceptive method, effectiveness is often the most important characteristic she considers. Knowing the risks and benefits of each method, including its effectiveness, is necessary for a woman to make a truly informed decision. Yet, many women do not understand how well various methods protect against pregnancy. Health professionals usually explain effectiveness by informing women of the expected pregnancy rates for each method during perfect use (when the method is used consistently and correctly) and during more typical use (such as when a woman forgets to take all of her pills). However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently endorsed a simple evidence-based chart that healthcare providers can use to help women understand the relative effectiveness of different methods -- a concept that is much easier for most people to grasp. Key points of this article are: 1) Clinicians play an important role in ensuring that women understand the concept of effectiveness -- a key element of informed choice; 2) Women are able to understand the relative effectiveness of contraceptive methods more easily than the absolute effectiveness of a particular method; and 3) A new chart that places the methods on a continuum from least to most effective can help health professionals better communicate about contraceptive effectiveness.
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  21. 21
    329053
    Peer Reviewed

    Accuracy of self-screening for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive use.

    Grossman D; Fernandez L; Hopkins K; Amastae J; Garcia SG

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2008 Sep; 112(3):572-8.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate how well a convenience sample of women from the general population could self-screen for contraindications to combined oral contraceptives using a medical checklist. METHODS: Women 18-49 years old (N=1,271) were recruited at two shopping malls and a flea market in El Paso, Texas, and asked first whether they thought birth control pills were medically safe for them. They then used a checklist to determine the presence of level 3 or 4 contraindications to combined oral contraceptives according to the World Health Organization Medical Eligibility Criteria. The women then were interviewed by a blinded nurse practitioner, who also measured blood pressure. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the unaided self-screen to detect true contraindications was 56.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51.7-60.6%), and specificity was 57.6% (95% CI 54.0-61.1%). The sensitivity of the checklist to detect true contraindications was 83.2% (95% CI 79.5-86.3%), and specificity was 88.8% (95% CI 86.3-90.9%). Using the checklist, 6.6% (95% CI 5.2-8.0%) of women incorrectly thought they were eligible for use when, in fact, they were contraindicated, largely because of unrecognized hypertension. Seven percent (95% CI 5.4-8.2%) of women incorrectly thought they were contraindicated when they truly were not, primarily because of misclassification of migraine headaches. In regression analysis, younger women, more educated women, and Spanish speakers were significantly more likely to correctly self-screen (P<.05). CONCLUSION: Self-screening for contraindications to oral contraceptives using a medical checklist is relatively accurate. Unaided screening is inaccurate and reflects common misperceptions about the safety of oral contraceptives. Over-the-counter provision of this method likely would be safe, especially for younger women and if independent blood pressure screening were encouraged.
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  22. 22
    325863
    Peer Reviewed

    The sexual and reproductive health of young people in Latin America: Evidence from WHO case studies.

    Kostrzewa K

    Salud Publica de Mexico. 2008 Jan-Feb; 50(1):10-16.

    This original article addresses the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people aged 15 to 24 in Latin America. It introduces five articles from original research projects in three countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. These projects were funded by the World Health Organization. This article explains the importance of studies that address the sexual and reproductive health of young people in developing countries. It provides an overview of sexual and reproductive health issues in Latin America and a discussion these issues in the three study countries. The five articles deal with difficult and challenging issues, including: knowledge of STIs and HIV/ AIDS; pregnancy related practices; quality of care; the role of young men in couple formation, pregnancy and adoption of contraceptive practice; and, the role of obstetricians and gynecologists in public policy debate about family planning and abortion. The four articles in this special section help to improve our understanding of the factors that contribute to risky sexual behavior and negative reproductive health outcomes among youth in Latin America. The findings are useful to help inform and improve health care interventions in various contexts. (author's)
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  23. 23
    324846
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of the educational impact of the WHO Essential Newborn Care course in Zambia.

    McClure EM; Carlo WA; Wright LL; Chomba E; Uxa F

    Acta Paediatrica. 2007 Aug; 96(8):1135-1138.

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course in improving knowledge and skills of nurse midwives in low-risk delivery clinics in a developing country. The investigators identified the content specifications of the training material, developed both written and performance evaluations and administered the evaluations both before and after training clinical nurse midwives in Zambia. Based on these evaluations, both the knowledge and skills of the nurse midwives improved significantly following the course (from a mean of 65% correct pretraining to 84% correct post-training and from 65% to 77% correct on the performance and written evaluations, respectively). The ENC course written evaluation was validated and both tools allowed evaluation of the ENC course training. We found significant improvements in trainees' knowledge and skills in essential newborn care following the WHO ENC course; however, lack of basic resources may have limited the application of the ENC guidelines. Implementation of the ENC course should be undertaken in consideration with the local conditions available for newborn care. (author's)
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  24. 24
    324656
    Peer Reviewed

    What do we know about sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in Europe?

    Avery L; Lazdane G

    European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2008 Mar; 13(1):58-70.

    Acceptance of sexual and reproductive health as fundamental to the sustainable development of societies has allowed for creation of new reproductive health programmes and policies. WHO sexual and reproductive health (SRH) strategies were developed in the WHO Regional Office for Europe (2001), as well as globally (2004). Adolescent SRH is important in both strategies. Despite these commitments, adolescents remain vulnerable to poor reproductive health. The goal of this paper is to analyse the current status of SRH of adolescents in Europe. Key reproductive health indicators were chosen. Information was obtained from published studies, databases and questionnaires sent to WHO reproductive health counterparts within the health ministries in the Member States of the WHO European Region. Pregnancy rate, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive use at first and last intercourse, contraceptive prevalence, HIV knowledge, and STI rates vary widely according to the population considered. Gender difference and lack of information pertaining to SRH of all adolescent populations are other key findings. While the SRH of most European adolescents is good, they remain a vulnerable population. Lack of standardized reproductive indicators and age specific aggregate data make it difficult to accurately assess the situation in individual countries or perform cross country comparison. (author's)
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  25. 25
    322019

    Scaling up HIV / AIDS prevention, treatment and care: a report on WHO support to countries in implementing the “3 by 5” Initiative, 2004-2005.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Treat 3 Million by 2005 Initiative

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 143 p.

    In September 2003, LEE Jong-wook, Director-General of WHO, and Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, declared the lack of access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries to be a global health emergency. Shortly after this declaration, WHO and its partners launched a global initiative to scale up antiretroviral therapy with the objective of having 3 million people receiving antiretroviral therapy - representing half the total number of those globally in need - by the end of 2005 ("3 by 5"). Although the actual target of putting 3 million people on antiretroviral therapy was not reached by the end of 2005, countries have made significant progress in the past two years in expanding treatment coverage, strengthening prevention and building the capacity of health systems to deliver long-term, chronic care. Overall, in the two-year period, antiretroviral therapy coverage in low- and middle-income countries increased from 7% of those in need at the end of 2003 (400 000 people) to 20% of those in need at the end of 2005 (1.3 million people). Eighteen countries managed to increase antiretroviral therapy coverage to half or more of the people who needed it, consistent with the "3 by 5" target. (excerpt)
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