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Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Institute for International Development, 1990 Aug. v, 51 p. (Development Discussion Paper No. 355)Development planners often disregard the counter development risks of development projects in developing countries. Since they do not acknowledge these risks beforehand and do not take action to circumvent or reduce these risks, some counter development effects cause a considerable unexpected chain reaction. For example, dam construction agencies either underestimate population displacement numbers or do not include the estimates in feasibility reports. The development of Lake Sobradinho in Brazil displaced 65,000 inhabitants. 24,000 were supposed to relocate 800km upstream, but only 28% actually moved there. Many people lost their possessions and animals. Once they arrived at the new location, they had to fend for themselves. A hydropower and irrigation project on the Citarum river in West Java, Indonesia, resulted in a 49% lower household income and a 47% lower land ownership. The Kiambere reservoir project in Kenya caused mean land holding size to fall from 13-6 hectares, a >33% reduction in livestock, and >66% reduction in yields of maize and beans. Thus water resource development programs designed to bring irrigation, flood control, drinking water, energy, and better navigation to the aggregate population often result in impoverishment for the dislocated population. Joblessness, homelessness, morbidity, marginalization, and the disintegration of social and kinship networks also cause impoverishment. Water resource development planners can incorporate preventive and mitigating measures to guarantee adequate resettlement of the displaced persons into these projects via 4 frameworks. The policy framework involves guidelines for forced population displacement. Governments need to develop a legal framework to protect the interests and rights of the displaced people. The planning framework requires resettlement actions plans (ideally to reduce displacement) to be an integral part of planning the project. The organizational framework places resettlement high on the list of priorities.