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  1. 1
    340897

    Emergency contraception. Fact sheet.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Feb. [6] p.

    Emergency contraception can prevent most pregnancies when taken after intercourse. Emergency contraception can be used in the following situations: unprotected intercourse, contraceptive failure, incorrect use of contraceptives, or in cases of sexual assault. There are 3 methods of emergency contraception: emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), combined oral contraceptive pills or the Yuzpe method, and copper-bearing intrauterine devices (IUDs). A copper-bearing IUD is the most effective form of emergency contraception available when inserted within 5 days of unprotected intercourse. The emergency contraceptive pill regimen recommended by WHO is either: a. 1 dose of levonorgestrel 1.5 mg, or 1 dose of ulipristal 30 mg, taken within 5 days (120 hours) of unprotected intercourse; or b. 2 doses of combined oral contraceptive pills (also known as the Yuzpe regimen).
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  2. 2
    037581

    Long-acting Progestasert IUD systems.

    Edelman DA; Cole LP; Apelo R; Lavin P

    In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Shelton JD, Sciarra JJ, ed. Long-acting contraceptive delivery systems. Philadelphia, Pa., Harper and Row, 1984. 621-7. (PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation)

    Progestasert (Alza Corporation, Palo Alto, California) achieves relatively high rates of contraceptive effectiveness through the release of a sex hormone--progesterone. Currently, it is recommended that Progestaserts be replaces every 12 months and most copper-bearing IUDs, every 3 years. To improve on Progestasert's 1-year replacement interval, Alza Corporation modified the Progestasert by increasing the amount of pregesterone contained in the IUD (from 38 to 52 mg) without changing the average daily release of 65mg. This long-acting progestasert, called the Intrauterine Progesterone Contraceptive System (IPCS), was designed to have a useful life of 3 years before replacement was required. The IPCS is identical in appearance to the Progestasert, and its contraceptive action in the same as that of the Progestasert. The effectiveness of either is through the effects of an intrauterine foreign body and through the effects of the progesterone on the encometrium. The IPCS system was designed to provide maximum contraceptive protection over a 3-year period and to reduce IUD-related bleeding, pain, and expulsion problems. Results from Alza monitored trials of the IPCS in the US and Mexico indicate that the cumulative life-table pregnancy rate increased from 3.6/100 women after 25 to 30 months of use to 10.6/100 women after 30 to 36 months of use. Laboratory evaluations of removed IPCS devices indicates that after 30 months of IPCS use the release rate of progesterone may not be adequate to prevent pregnancy effectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the IPCS in 2 multiclinic studies. Postinsertion complications and complaints for the IPCS and T Cu-200 are shown. The include cervical perforation, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, dysmenorrhea, bleeding, spotting, and pelvic pain. The IPCS seemingly offers no particular advantages for use in developing countries.
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