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PROGRESS IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION RESEARCH. 1992; (22):2-3.The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction has conducted long term studies on 2 copper releasing IUDs (TCu220C and TCu380A) in almost 2800 women which show that they are effective for 9 years. The pregnancy rates for TCu220C at 7 and 9 years are 4.9 and 5.4/1000 woman years respectively. Thus the annual risk of pregnancy is about 1%. The pregnancy rates for TCu380A are even lower (1.7 and 2.1 respectively), an annual rate of less than 0.5%. As a result of these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration sanctioned TCu380A use for 8 years up from 6 years. More than 80 million women worldwide, especially in developing countries (e.g., about 74 million in China), use the IUD. Researchers have analyzed data on 22,908 insertions from 12 trials to see whether IUD use is related to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and whether long term use causes more severe PID. They learned that the overall PID rate is 1.6/1000 woman years. The first 20 days after insertion carry a 7 times higher risk of PID, but the risk falls considerably thereafter and stays low for at least 8 years. Further, duration of IUD use does not increase the severity of PID. WHO is supporting research at 28 centers which are evaluating a new IUD which has copper sleeves hanging from a nylon suture (frameless IUD). During insertion, the clinician embeds the suture superficially into the top of the uterus so the IUD and the copper sleeves are suspended. WHO is also supporting research at up to 6 centers on 2 modified frameless IUDs designed to be inserted after delivery. The research want to determine whether the high expulsion rate of IUDs inserted during the postpartum period can be reduced.
Lancet. 1992 Mar 28; 339(8796):783-4.It is difficult to determine if the IUD increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) because simple clinical features are not consistently predictive and can have low specificity and sensitivity. The C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate tests help with PID diagnosis, but only a laparoscopy can determine tubal involvement. In 1970, WHO's Cooperative Statistical Programme found 2-year combined PID rates to range from 3.8 to 5.2/100 women with an IUD. Then WHO and various US organizations agreed IUD use did not necessarily cause PID. During the 1970s, however, a large rise in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially chlamydia and gonorrhea, occurred and were associated with PID incidence. Many believed the growing rate of PID was attributable to the increasing use of IUDs. Many studies were biased because of overdiagnosis of PID. A 1990 review of 28 articles revealed that the overall PID rate was 1.49/100 woman years (lower than what many believed earlier). Some researchers used multicountry data on 22, 908 IUD insertions from WHO's data base for IUD studies to determine PID risk in IUD users. This risk was somewhat high during the 1st 20 days postinsertion which may be related to insertion, but PID rates in IUD users corresponded with those from the general population. PID rates did increase with age, however, and they did vary with geographical area. In addition, rates were 62% lower in women whose IUD was inserted after 1980. The PID rate was associated with background risk of STDs. These results and those of other studies suggest that health staff must adequately assess all patients before fitting the IUD and insert it only under strict aseptic conditions. IUDs that release copper and levonorgestrel pose a lower risk of PID than nonmedicated IUDs.
In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Shelton JD, Sciarra JJ, ed. Long-acting contraceptive delivery systems. Philadelphia, Pa., Harper and Row, 1984. 621-7. (PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation)Progestasert (Alza Corporation, Palo Alto, California) achieves relatively high rates of contraceptive effectiveness through the release of a sex hormone--progesterone. Currently, it is recommended that Progestaserts be replaces every 12 months and most copper-bearing IUDs, every 3 years. To improve on Progestasert's 1-year replacement interval, Alza Corporation modified the Progestasert by increasing the amount of pregesterone contained in the IUD (from 38 to 52 mg) without changing the average daily release of 65mg. This long-acting progestasert, called the Intrauterine Progesterone Contraceptive System (IPCS), was designed to have a useful life of 3 years before replacement was required. The IPCS is identical in appearance to the Progestasert, and its contraceptive action in the same as that of the Progestasert. The effectiveness of either is through the effects of an intrauterine foreign body and through the effects of the progesterone on the encometrium. The IPCS system was designed to provide maximum contraceptive protection over a 3-year period and to reduce IUD-related bleeding, pain, and expulsion problems. Results from Alza monitored trials of the IPCS in the US and Mexico indicate that the cumulative life-table pregnancy rate increased from 3.6/100 women after 25 to 30 months of use to 10.6/100 women after 30 to 36 months of use. Laboratory evaluations of removed IPCS devices indicates that after 30 months of IPCS use the release rate of progesterone may not be adequate to prevent pregnancy effectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the IPCS in 2 multiclinic studies. Postinsertion complications and complaints for the IPCS and T Cu-200 are shown. The include cervical perforation, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, dysmenorrhea, bleeding, spotting, and pelvic pain. The IPCS seemingly offers no particular advantages for use in developing countries.