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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Effect of irrigation and large dams on the burden of malaria on a global and regional scale.

    Keiser J; Castro MC; Maltese MF; Bos R; Tanner M

    American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2005; 72(4):392-406.

    Human-made ecologic transformations have occurred at an unprecedented rate over the past 50 years. Prominent among them are water resource development projects. An estimated 40,000 large dams and 800,000 small dams have been built, and 272 million hectares of land are currently under irrigation worldwide. The establishment and operation of water projects has had a history of facilitating a change in the frequency and transmission dynamics of malaria, but analyses of these environmental risk factors are sparse. Here, we present a comprehensive review of studies that assessed the impact of irrigation and dam building on malaria prevalence or incidence, stratified by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) sub-regions of the world, and link these studies with the latest statistics on disability adjusted life years, irrigated agriculture, and large dams. We also present estimates of the population at risk due to proximity to irrigation schemes and large dam reservoirs. In WHO sub-regions 1 and 2, which have 87.9% of the current global malaria burden, only 9.4 million people are estimated to live near large dams and irrigation schemes. In contrast, the remaining sub-regions concentrate an estimated 15.3 million people near large dams and up to 845 million near irrigation sites, while here only 12.1% of the global malaria burden is concentrated. Whether an individual water project triggers an increase in malaria transmission depends on the contextual determinants of malaria, including the epidemiologic setting, socioeconomic factors, vector management, and health seeking behavior. We conclude that in unstable malaria endemic areas, integrated malaria control measures, coupled with sound water management, are mandatory to mitigate the current burden of malaria in locations near irrigation or dam sites. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Towards putting farmers in control: a second case study of the rural communication system for development in Mexico's tropical wetlands. [Agricultores a las riendas: un segundo estudio de casos del sistema de comunicación rural para el desarrollo en los pantanos tropicales mexicanos]

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Information Division. Development Support Communication Branch

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990. v, 58 p. (Development Communication Case Study No. 9)

    This is the second Case Study of the Rural Communication System for Development in Mexico's Tropical Wetlands. The first was written in late 1985 and published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in early 1987. The important changes that have taken place in Mexico since 1985, in particular as they relate to development in the tropical wetlands and the communication system working in that context, now warrant a second Case Study. To set the present Case Study in its proper context, it should, ideally, be read in conjunction with the earlier one, but since this may not be possible for all readers, the salient information provided in the earlier study will be given in the Background section, below. The first part of this Study will set the scene and describe the approach and the work being carried out, while the last section will attempt to examine the situation from various perspectives and offer some views regarding its future prospects. It should be noted, however, that this Study is not an evaluation. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh: a geographic analysis.

    Paul BK; De S

    Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 2000 Aug; 36(4):799-809.

    Drinking of arsenic-contaminated tubewell water has become a serious health threat in Bangladesh. Arsenic contaminated tubewells are believed to be responsible for poisoning nearly two-thirds of this country's population. If proper actions are not taken immediately, many people in Bangladesh will die from arsenic poisoning in just a few years. Causes and consequences of arsenic poisoning, the extent of area affected by it, and local knowledge and beliefs about the arsenic problem - including solutions and international responses to the problem - are analyzed. Although no one knows precisely how the arsenic is released into the ground water, several contradictory theories exist to account for its release. Initial symptoms of the poisoning consist of a dryness and throat constriction, difficulty in swallowing, and acute epigastric pain. Long-term exposure leads to skin, lung, or bladder cancer. Both government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Bangladesh, foreign governments, and international agencies are now involved in mitigating the effects of the arsenic poisoning, as well as developing cost-effective remedial measures that are affordable by the rural people. (author's)
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