Your search found 237 Results
An evidence map of social, behavioural and community engagement interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 190 p.The Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) calls for action towards three objectives: Survive (end preventable deaths), Thrive (ensure health and well-being) and Transform (expand enabling environments). The strategy recognizes that “women, children and adolescents are potentially the most powerful agents for improving their own health and achieving prosperous and sustainable societies”. Social, behavioural and community engagement (SBCE) interventions are key to empowering individuals, families and communities to contribute to better health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. Policy-makers and development practitioners need to know which interventions work best. WHO has provided global guidance on some key SBCE interventions, and we recognize there is more work to be done as this will be an area of increasing importance in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the EWEC Global Strategy. This document provides an evidence map of existing research into a set of selected SBCE interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH), the fruit of a collaboration between the WHO, the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) and the International Initiative for Impact Evaluations (3ie), supported by other partners. It represents an important way forward in this area, harnessing technical expertise, and academia to strengthen knowledge about the evidence base. The evidence map provides a starting point for making available existing research into the effectiveness of RMNCH SBCE interventions, a first step toward providing evidence for decision-making. It will enable better use of existing knowledge and pinpoint where new research investments can have the greatest impact. An online platform that complements the report provides visualization of the findings, displaying research concentrations and gaps.
Strengthening health systems to respond to women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: a manual for health managers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 172 p.This manual is intended for health managers at all levels of the health systems. The manual is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines, 2013. Those guidelines inform this manual and its companion clinical handbook for healthcare providers, Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence, 2014. The manual draws on the WHO health systems building blocks as outlined in Everybody’s business: strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action..
WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience: Summary. Highlights and key messages from the World Health Organization’s 2016 Global Recommendations for Routine Antenatal Care.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018 Jan. 10 p. (WHO/RHR/18.02; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This brief highlights the WHO’s 2016 ANC recommendations and offers countries policy and program considerations for adopting and implementing the recommendations. The recommendations include universal and context-specific interventions. The recommended interventions span five categories: routine antenatal nutrition, maternal and fetal assessment, preventive measures, interventions for the management of common physiologic symptoms in pregnancy, and health system-level interventions to improve the utilization and quality of ANC.
[Washington, D.C.], MCSP, 2017 Jun. 5 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This brief complements the 2012 WHO Guidelines on Basic Newborn Resuscitation, and highlights key changes and best practices for newborn resuscitation in resource-limited settings. Successful implementation of these recommendations at the time of birth is intended to improve the quality of care for newborns, and contribute to better health outcomes and reduce preventable newborn deaths and disabilities due to birth asphyxia.
Implementing malaria in pregnancy programs in the context of World Health Organization recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience.
[Washington, D.C.], MCSP, 2017 Apr. 6 p.This technical brief highlights recommendations for the prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in the context of the World Health Organization (WHO) Recommendations on Antenatal Care for a Positive Pregnancy Experience, published in 2016. Also available in French and Portuguese.
Complementary Feeding Interventions Have a Small but Significant Impact on Linear and Ponderal Growth of Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Journal of Nutrition. 2017 Nov; 147(11):2169S-2178S.Background: World Health Assembly member states have committed to ambitious global targets for reductions in stunting and wasting by 2025. Improving complementary diets of children aged 6-23 mo is a recommended approach for reducing stunting in children <5 y old. Less is known about the potential of these interventions to prevent wasting.Objective: The aim of this article was to review and synthesize the current literature for the impact of complementary feeding interventions on linear [length-for-age z score (LAZ)] and ponderal [weight-for-length z score (WLZ)] growth of children aged 6-23 mo, with the specific goal of updating intervention-outcome linkages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).Methods: We started our review with studies included in the previous LiST review and searched for articles published since January 2012. We identified longitudinal trials that compared children aged 6-23 mo who received 1 of 2 types of complementary feeding interventions (nutrition education or counseling alone or complementary food supplementation with or without nutrition education or counseling) with a no-intervention control. We assessed study quality and generated pooled estimates of LAZ and WLZ change, as well as length and weight gain, for each category of intervention.Results: Interventions that provided nutrition education or counseling had a small but significant impact on linear growth in food-secure populations [LAZ standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.22] but not on ponderal growth. Complementary food supplementation interventions with or without nutrition education also had a small, significant effect in food-insecure settings on both LAZ (SMD: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and WLZ (SMD: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08).Conclusions: Nutrition education and complementary feeding interventions both had a small but significant impact on linear growth, and complementary feeding interventions also had an impact on ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 mo in low- and middle-income countries. The updated LiST model will support nutrition program planning and evaluation efforts by allowing users to model changes in intervention coverage on both stunting and wasting. (c) 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
The importance of sexual and reproductive health and rights to prevent HIV in adolescent girls and young women in eastern and southern Africa.
Geneva Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 24 p. (Evidence Brief; WHO/RHR/17.05)Over the last several years, countries in the eastern and southern Africa (ESA) region have made significant and commendable progress in preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and in scaling up HIV treatment efforts. However, despite these gains, there have been no significant reductions in new HIV infections and the region continues to be the hardest hit by the epidemic, highlighting the need to place stronger emphasis on HIV prevention. The risk of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in the ESA region is of particular concern. The 2016 UNAIDS World AIDS Day report, Get on the Fast-Track – The life-cycle approach to HIV, stated that efforts to reduce new HIV infections among young people and adults have stalled, threatening to undermine progress towards ending AIDS as a global public health threat by 2030.
Geneva Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 8 p. (Evidence-to-Action Brief; WHO/RHR/17.18)This policy brief is designed to help countries implement the Global STI Strategy. By taking action to build sustainable national and institutional capacity for addressing STIs, countries can ensure that key cost- effective interventions reach the greatest number of people in need.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Jul. 32 p.This report provides compelling new evidence that backs up an unconventional prediction UNICEF made in 2010: The higher cost of reaching the poorest children with life-saving, high-impact health interventions would be outweighed by greater results. This new study combines modelling and data from 51 countries. The results indicate that the number of lives saved by investing in the most deprived is almost twice as high as the number saved by equivalent investment in less deprived groups.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Sep. 92 p.This report presents data and outlines best practices and policies that can put governments on the path to providing every child with the best start in life. It outlines the neuroscience of early childhood development (ECD), including the importance of nutrition, protection and stimulation in the early years. And it makes the case for scaling up investment, evaluation and monitoring in ECD programmes. The report concludes with a six-point call to action for governments and their partners to help maximize the potential of the children who will build the future – by making the most of the unparalleled opportunities offered by the early moments in life.
BJOG. 2018 Feb; 125(3):288.Against a background of an increasing demand for surgical intervention for the treatment of FGM/C related complications, Berg et al
Note for typesetter: Please update reference when assigned to an issue.have conducted a systematic review of 62 studies involving 5829 women, to assess the effectiveness of defibulation, excision of cysts and clitoral reconstructive surgery. Berg et al report that defibulation showed a lower risk of Caesarean section and perineal tears; excision of cysts commonly resulted in resolution of symptoms; and clitoral reconstruction resulted in most women self-reporting improvements in their sexual health. However, Berg et al highlight that they had little confidence in the effect estimate for all outcomes as most of the studies were observational and conclude that there is currently poor quality of evidence on the benefits and/or harm of surgical interventions to be able to counsel women appropriately. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 56 p.This report, the first such published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), looks at FGM through the lens of population dynamics and the demographic dividend, based on current evidence and data. It offers quantitative information that both supports evidence-based programming, and frames financial implications for Member States and international donors. Evidence to define the size of the target population and orient actions around areas of greatest impact is of high value in developing interventions and formulating policies. UNFPA remains strongly committed to engaging with Member States, civil society, UN agencies and all other stakeholders to accelerate the elimination of FGM worldwide. Protecting girls upholds their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and enables them to realize their full potential.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015 Nov. 101 p.Gender based violence is a life-threatening, global health and human rights issue that violates international human rights law and principles of gender equality. In emergencies, such as conflict or natural disasters, the risk of violence, exploitation and abuse is heightened, particularly for women and girls. UNFPA’s “Minimum Standards for Prevention and Response to GBV in Emergencies (GBViE)” promote the safety and well being of women and girls in emergencies and provide practical guidance on how to mitigate and prevent gender-based violence in emergencies and facilitate access to multi-sector services for survivors.
Implementing comprehensive HIV and STI programmes with transgender people: practical guidance for collaborative interventions.
New York, New York, UNDP, 2016 Apr. 212 p.This publication provides guidance to programme designers, implementers, policymakers and decision-makers on how to meaningfully engage adolescents in the AIDS response and in broader health programming. It also demonstrates why adolescents and youth are critical in efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The publication additionally highlights what steps should be taken to implement programmes and policies that improve adolescent health outcomes (including for HIV) at the national, regional and global levels.
Accelerating change by the numbers. 2016 annual report of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting: Accelerating change.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017 Jul. 92 p.The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives. This main document, "By the Numbers," analyses progress in quantitative terms, using the Results Framework as a basis. It provides an account of how the budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries (excepting Yemen). The profiles present facts on the national context, summarize key achievements, and share operational and financial information.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017. 80 p.The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives: The main document analyses progress in quantitative terms, provides an account of how our budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries. This companion booklet uses a qualitative and narrative approach to examine more specifically the challenges, complexities and achievements on the ground. It explores the innovative approaches the Joint Programme teams, partners and activists employ to deconstruct the social norms that allow FGM / C to continue in many communities.
Adolescent girls in disaster and conflict. Interventions for improving access to sexual and reproductive health services.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2016. 92 p.Safe spaces, mobile medical teams and youth engagement are effective ways to reach displaced, uprooted, crisis-affected girls at a critical time in their young lives. Adolescent Girls in Disaster & Conflict: Interventions for Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services is a collection of UNFPA-supported humanitarian interventions for reaching adolescents when crisis heightens vulnerability to gender-based violence, unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, early and forced marriage and other risks.
Ethical and safety recommendations for intervention research on violence against women. Building on lessons from the WHO publication, "Putting women first: ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence against women".
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 43 p.As the evidence base on the magnitude, context and consequences of violence against women (VAW) has grown, research efforts and attention have begun to focus on decreasing the knowledge gap on effective responses through intervention research. Demonstrating this focus, in November 2012 the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research convened a group of experts to discuss health sector-based research to respond to violence against women. This global network of researchers, scientists and practitioners was brought together to enhance existing research efforts and to advocate for greater funding for research on interventions to address VAW and policies and programmes related to it. With the increased interest in and attention of the global community of researchers, practitioners and policy-makers regarding rigorous intervention research for preventing and responding to VAW, a discussion of the ethical considerations specific to this type of research is warranted. These recommendations have been developed to help answer questions specific to conducting research on health-based interventions to prevent and respond to VAW. Research on strategies that use health or health care as an entry point (regardless of the implementation setting, such as a clinic or community) is the focus. However, the discussion may be relevant to research on other kinds of VAW interventions.
Piloting L3M for child marriage: Experience in monitoring results in equity systems (MoRES) in Bangladesh.
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates Inc., Health Finance & Governance Project, 2014 Sep. 100 p.Monitoring Results for Equity Systems (MoRES) is UNICEF’s global monitoring framework that was recently introduced in Bangladesh and other countries. MoRES proposes a hierarchy of information to facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of UNICEF programs. Level 1 corresponds to a situational analysis, which intends to identify the major bottlenecks and barriers to the achievement of UNICEF goals. Level 2 creates a routine approach for monitoring implementation of UNICEF programs. Level 3-which is the subject of this report-monitors the extent to which UNICEF programs contribute to reductions in the barriers and bottlenecks identified in Level 1. Finally, Level 4 monitoring measures the impact of UNICEF programs on the broader goals. The level 3 monitoring approach (L3M) pilot for child marriage described in this report focuses on examining how two of UNICEF’s Child Protection activities -adolescent stipends and conditional cash transfers - contribute to reductions in three priority bottlenecks: social norms, financial access, and legislation/policy. The pilot contributes the methodology and content required for UNICEF to conduct regular, routine monitoring of its Child Protection Program, as part of an office-wide L3M exercise at UNICEF-Bangladesh. (excerpt)
Under-served and over-looked: prioritizing contraceptive equity for the poorest and most marginalized women and girls.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2017 Jul. 40 p.This report is a synthesis of evidence revealed from a literature review, including 68 reports from 34 countries. The results are dire: the poorest women and girls, in the poorest communities of the poorest countries are still not benefitting from the global investment in family planning and the joined up actions of the global family planning movement. Women in the poorest countries who want to avoid pregnancy are one-third as likely to be using a modern method as those living in higher-income developing countries.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Mar. 36 p. (CGD Policy Paper 077)This paper seeks to determine the degree to which a gender lens has been incorporated into World Bank projects and the success of individual projects according to gender equality-related indicators. We first examine the World Bank’s internal scoring of projects based on whether they encompass gender analysis, action, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) components, as well as project development objective indicators and outcomes according to these indicators. We conclude that when indicators are defined, targets are specified, and outcomes are published, gender equality-related results appear largely positive. However, many projects (even those possessing a gender “theme” and perfect scores for the inclusion of gender analysis, action, and M&E components) lack gender-related indicators, and when such indicators are present, they often lack specified target goals. The paper concludes with a recommendation for increased transparency in gender-related project data (including data on the funding of gender equality-related components of projects) from donor institutions and a call for an increased number of gender-related indicators and targets in donor projects.
Signs of eclampsia during singleton deliveries and early neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries from three WHO regions.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Oct; 139(1):50-54.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of eclampsia symptoms and to explore associations between eclampsia and early neonatal mortality. METHODS: The present secondary analysis included Demographic and Health Surveys data from 2005 to 2012; details of signs related to severe obstetric adverse events of singleton deliveries during interviewees' most recent delivery in the preceding 5 years were included. Data and delivery history were merged for pooled analyses. Convulsions-used as an indicator for having experienced eclampsia-and early neonatal mortality rates were compared, and a generalized random effect model, adjusted for heterogeneity between and within countries, was used to investigate the impact of presumed eclampsia on early neonatal mortality. RESULTS: The merged dataset included data from six surveys and 55 384 live deliveries that occurred in Colombia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mali, Niger, and Peru. Indications of eclampsia were recorded for 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.3), 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1), and 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1) of deliveries reported from the American, South East Asian, and African regions, respectively. Pooled analyses demonstrated that eclampsia was associated with increased risk of early neonatal mortality (adjusted risk ratio 2.1 95% CI 1.4-3.2). CONCLUSION: Increased risk of early neonatal mortality indicates a need for strategies targeting the early detection of eclampsia and early interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. WHO clinical and policy guidelines.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2013. 68 p.A health-care provider is likely to be the first professional contact for survivors of intimate partner violence or sexual assault. Evidence suggests that women who have been subjected to violence seek health care more often than non-abused women, even if they do not disclose the associated violence. They also identify health-care providers as the professionals they would most trust with disclosure of abuse. These guidelines are an unprecedented effort to equip healthcare providers with evidence-based guidance as to how to respond to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. They also provide advice for policy makers, encouraging better coordination and funding of services, and greater attention to responding to sexual violence and partner violence within training programmes for health care providers. The guidelines are based on systematic reviews of the evidence, and cover: 1) identification and clinical care for intimate partner violence; 2) clinical care for sexual assault; 3) training relating to intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women; 4) policy and programmatic approaches to delivering services; and 5) mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence. The guidelines aim to raise awareness of violence against women among health-care providers and policy-makers, so that they better understand the need for an appropriate health-sector response. They provide standards that can form the basis for national guidelines, and for integrating these issues into health-care provider education.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015. 124 p.The report delivers both promising and disappointing messages about the situation in low- and middle-income countries. Within-country inequalities have narrowed, with a tendency for national improvements driven by faster improvements in disadvantaged subgroups. However, inequalities still persist in most reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health indicators. The extent of within-country inequality differed by dimension of inequality and by country, country income group and geographical region. There is still much progress to be made in reducing inequalities in RMNCH.
Integrated person-centered health care for all women during pregnancy: implementing World Health Organization recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Jun 27; 5(2):197-201.Add to my documents.