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[New York, New York], Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 2007 Jul.  p.Progress in the initial stages of the documentation process can be slow, though it gathers momentum over time. Successful communication channels such as email are important for maintaining the momentum. Familiarity with applying the GRIPP framework and process and having existing networks in the field adds value to the product. An initial lack of knowledge about stakeholders can slow down the documentation process. However, the documentation process can help discover who these stakeholders are and the usefulness of the study to them. Case study information is much easier to recall and richer when the research is still current or only recently concluded. A snowballing effect, which results in getting more stakeholder perspectives than originally thought, can occur during the process. A study may have clinical and social and other dimensions, which have very different processes and outcomes with relation to a given research study. Each needs to be followed up in order to fully understand the utilisation and effectiveness of the research. A well-positioned facilitator may be the best placed to assume a neutral position and document the research process. Many of the obstacles in relation to the documentation process that were encountered could be overcome if researchers built the documentation process into their research schedule. (excerpt)
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 85-87. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)The World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa has identified reproductive health as a priority area in the delivery of health care services in the African region. This is in response to the persistently high levels of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The long-term vision of the Organization in the region on reproductive health is to ensure that every woman goes safely through pregnancy and childbirth and infants are born alive and healthy. In pursuance of this vision, the reproductive health strategy for the African region was developed in 1998. The strategy is aimed at assisting member states and partners to identify priorities and plan their programmes and interventions at various levels, particularly at the district level. Male involvement and participation is one of the strategic directions of the reproductive health strategy for the African region. The opportunities and challenges for the involvement of men in reproductive health programmes in the African region are described and the future perspectives highlighted. (author's)
A qualitative evaluation of the impact of the Stepping Stones sexual health programme on domestic violence and relationship power in rural Gambia.
[Unpublished] 2002. Presented at the 6th Global Forum for Health Research, Arusha, Tanzania, November, 2002.  p.The work presented here came from a preliminary evaluation and was followed up by several applications for funding to carry out a prospective community randomised trial. So far none have been accepted. This may be partly due to the fact that such an evaluation runs against current funding culture. Because of it's holistic approach and focus on core skills in couple communication, the Stepping Stones programme is neither just an HIV prevention or just a domestic violence prevention programme, but has something to contribute to both (and would see the two problems as inter-related). Funding on the other hand is often organised 'vertically' by problem, and evaluation criteria may differ from one problem to another. For example donors who fund evaluation of HIV prevention activities usually require a biological outcome, and hence concentrate on geographical areas with high HIV incidence where the epidemic is seen as most severe. Where sociological outcomes are used this tends to be either the use of quantitative tools to assist in risk factor analysis, or qualitative tools which can assist in replication of the intervention. As such they are usually considered secondary to the primary (biological) outcomes. The hope here is that these interventions may provide a 'blueprint' which can subsequently be applied in low prevalence areas. However by concentrating on proximal rather than distal determinants of infection these blueprints may only capture 'half the story', leading to locally inappropriate assumptions about which groups or behaviours HIV prevention programmes should target. An example would be the demand by some donors that interventions should have an exclusive focus on adolescents, when in a polygamous society adolescent's risk is often mediated by the older generation. On the other hand community interventions against domestic violence are forced to rely on self reported behaviour (perhaps backed up by participant observation) as an outcome. If the intervention is also a reflexive process then qualitative studies become essential to describe a process of change which contains empowerment, group dynamic and normative dimensions. The locally appropriate nature of such interventions is used to justify participatory interventions as being more effective than didactic approaches, but at the same time in the epidemiological-evaluation paradigm it can be seen as problematic, because (I would argue incorrectly) a participatory process is assumed to generate a wide spectrum of outcomes (low replicability), which mitigates against quantitative evaluation. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Population Council, 2001. vii, 56 p.This document summarizes the proceedings of a meeting held in March 2001 in Washington, District of Columbia. The meeting was co-sponsored by the Population Council and US Agency for International Development's Inter-agency Gender Working Group's Men and Reproductive Health Subcommittee. Gender-based power inequalities hinder communication between partners, limit the ability of individuals and couples to talk about or achieve desired child spacing and family size goals, limit effective use of reproductive health services, undercut men's and women's attainment of sexual health and pleasure, and increase substantially their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The contents of this document include discussions on the evidence of power in sexual relationships; field-based efforts on service delivery, community, and socialization; and comments from the community of donors and implementing agencies.
Report of Workshop on Personality Enhancement and Self Awareness for Grass-Root Level Workers (16th, 17th and 18th July, 1992).
[Unpublished] 1992. , 16 p.The Safe Motherhood Immunization and Timely Action (SMITA) Society is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) working in effective communication for sustained behavioral and attitudinal change for social welfare and development programs. The project Communication Support to Programs for Urban Poor supported by UNICEF/UBS entailed collaborating with other NGOs for developing communication strategies applicable to urban slums in support of integrated community development programs. Projects SMITA has helped strengthen the communication skills of grass root level workers (GRLWs) of the 19 NGOs whose program for integrated community development was supported by UNICEF/UBS. During the interaction with GRLWs the need to enhance their confidence and motivation was perceived in order to make them effective communicators. Basti workers also needed to understand themselves and other people, their personality, and the value system. Project SMITA as well as the NGO training center deemed it important to organize a workshop on personality enhancement and self awareness. GRLWs of 18 NGOs working in urban slum areas of Delhi for integrated community development under assistance from UNICEF/UBS participated in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop, held on 3 days in July 1992, were: a) to motivate and enhance the general confidence levels of the Basti workers; b) to help workers become aware of their attitudes towards themselves and towards others, c) to provide the workers with skills necessary for management of conflicts. The areas of focus were: a) understanding others and interpersonal relations; b) achievement motivation; c) self awareness for personal growth; d) feeling and behavior; e) team building; f) resolving conflicts and problem-solving skills; and g) self-disclosure and trust building. Feedback from the participants indicated that the workshop was successful, and regular sessions were suggested by some participants.
Washington Post. 2000 Jul 5; A1.This article describes the political infighting, quiet racism, and overall neglect that have impeded the industrialized world’s reaction to the AIDS epidemic. It is noted that less than 20 years after physicians first described its symptoms, HIV has now infected 53 million people and has claimed the lives of 19 million people. In wealthy nations, effective drug therapies against AIDS became available, such as zidovudine in 1987 and then combinations of antiretroviral agents in 1996. But according to AIDS experts, combating the disease requires governments to interpose themselves into controversies of sex, injected drugs, and other taboos. It also requires people in the developed world to make Africa and Africans a priority. Even the WHO has had trouble confronting such realities. In addition, combating AIDS requires costly change in economies and national cultures. In this perspective, the US government, African governments, the World Bank, WHO, and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) are still struggling to agree on, and implement a prevention program in sub-Saharan Africa that would include hundreds of million of dollars in youth- focused education, intensive counseling of sex workers, provision and "social marketing" of condoms and much more aggressive treatment of lesser venereal disease. Some are waiting for a vaccine, but it is noted that it took 183 years between the discovery of a smallpox vaccine and the disease’s eradication.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. iv, 51 p. (Evaluation Report No. 8)This document presents an evaluation report made by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) on the quality of family planning services in Botswana, Ecuador, Indonesia, Mexico, Niger, Pakistan, Turkey, and Vietnam. This thematic evaluation aimed to assess the extent to which UNFPA-supported family planning service programs are being complied based on the Guidelines for UNFPA Support with Family Planning Programs. The introductory part offers background information, purpose and methodology adopted in evaluating the services and presents summaries of case-study projects. Evaluation findings are discussed along six dimensions: choice of contraceptive methods; technical competence; information and counseling; interpersonal relations; mechanisms to encourage continuation; and appropriateness and acceptability of family planning services. Finally, this report outlines conclusions and recommendations concerning policy and programmatic issues.
POPULATION EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC NEWSLETTER AND FORUM. 1995; (41):5-11.The great deal of documentation which was prepared for the recent TSS/CST Population IEC (information, education, and communication) meeting from research, field experiments, and action projects will be useful to TSS/CST advisors and individual countries undertaking IEC and population education work. This article summarizes the 12 sessions held during the open forum. To illustrate some of the latest trends in population and health communication, the "enter-educate" approach and use of the interactive computer software called SCOPE (Strategic Communication Planning and Evaluation) were discussed. Next, ways in which to apply research effectively in IEC and population education were considered. Examples were provided of 1) a workshop methodology used to help a multidisciplinary group design a problem-solving communication strategy in Malaysia and Dominica; 2) the counseling training evaluation technique based on the GATHER (greet, ask, tell, help, explain, and return for follow-up) model; and 3) four types of evaluation of population education in schools. The third session was concerned with the program approach used in IEC and population education. Session 4 dealt with the implication of UNFPA support to family planning (FP) IEC. Counseling skills training and interpersonal communication were next on the agenda, followed by a consideration of how knowledge and policies are applied in the area of youth. The seventh session concentrated on ways to involve men in FP and reproductive health and included a discussion of a case study on the attitude and behavior of men with regard to FP which had IEC implications. The next session described the need to reconceptualize population education and what such a reconceptualization would entail. Session 9 was devoted to a consideration of gender issues and the education of girls. The tenth session covered the use of participatory approaches and community involvement in population communication programs. Innovative methodologies for school-based population education were described next, and the last session was concerned with new information technologies such as navigating the Internet and using new software for establishing databases.
[Quality of care in commercial and social marketing of family planning programs in Latin America and the Caribbean] La calidad de atencion en el mercadeo comercial y social de los programas de planificacion familiar en America Latina y el Caribe.
[Mexico City, Mexico], Population Council, Region Latinoamericana y del Caribe, 1991 Jul. 43 p. (Documentos de Trabajo No. 24)The contraceptive commercial market includes programs of distribution such as oral contraceptives, vaginal spermicides, and condoms that depend on promotion, distribution, and sale to the user, while others depend on the provider such as injectables and IUDs. Organizations differ widely, and most commercial ones generate income. In Latin America and the Caribbean the prevalence of all contraceptive methods is 54%, and those sold in the commercial sector such as oral contraceptives, condoms, injectables, vaginals, and spermicides represent about one-half of this prevalence. For instance, in Colombia, temporal methods make up 22% and the prevalence of use of all methods is 63%. In Brazil, the respective figures are 28% and 65%, while in Mexico they are 15% and 53%. The commercial sector provided contraceptives in 40% of less developed countries in 1968 and 80% in the whole world. Social marketing (SM) in contraceptives was started as a first program in the region in 1973 by Profamilia in Colombia in the eastern Caribbean islands. By 1983-84, SM distributed 1% of contraceptives in Mexico, and 10% or more in Colombia and Jamaica. The programs consist of the product, the place, the price, and promotion. The quality of care in commercial SM of family planning (FP) programs involves the choice of methods, competence of the provider, and personal knowledge about the products (contraindications, side effects, referral). Information exchange between provider and client, promoting continuity of use, follow-up mechanism, provider-client relations, and services are detailed. Mechanisms for reaching the objectives of SM and the quality of care include the options of methods (oral, injectable, vaginal), new products (Norplant), and quality (contraband, rupture of 12% of Panther and Sultan condoms). Although FP is unquestionably cost effective in preventing and reducing births, improvements could be made in accessibility, prices, promotion, and in the skills of providers.
Switching back: an experimental intervention of family planning client remotivation and clinic staff retraining: impact upon reacceptance and continuity.
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 73-82.In 1990, the Mauritius Family Planning Association presented educational sessions for former clients allowing them to meet f amily planning personnel and other women with similar experiences. It used audiovisual aids to discuss use of modern contraceptives and the advantage of scientific family planning, to dispel myths and rumors, and to explain how different methods could be used to meet their and partners' needs. At the same time, 10 service providers from the experimental clinic underwent a 6 week sensitization and retraining program emphasizing organization for efficiency, counseling skills, and skills to build client self esteem. Researchers observed both the control and experimental clinic for 9 months in 1991. 36 remotivated clients (73% return rate) and 29 mainly former clients who did not attend a session reaccepted a contraceptive method at the experimental clinic. As for the control clinic, 24 remotivated clinics (46% return rate) and 7 mainly former clients reaccepted a method. Both clinics' staff said that the extra clients returned because the 93 remotivated clients recommended or referred them directly to the clinics. The 2 interventions therefore had a spread effect. The experimental clinic did have a much better retention rate than the control clinic (46 client vs. 28 clients), however. Further it had higher continuity rates throughout the study period. At the end of the study, the continuity rate was 93.8 for the experimental clinic and 53.8 for the control clinic. The researchers concluded that the improved clinic services of the experimental clinic due to staff retraining in skills and attentiveness were responsible for the superior retention record and rates of return and continuity. Thus IEC programs that attend to former and potential clients' needs and develop skills and attentiveness of providers improve acceptor and continuity rates.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. , 73 p. (Population Education Programme Service)The revised UNESCO secondary school teaching manual provides lessons on family life education. Materials are based on the those available from the Population Education Clearing House. 4 Modules cover various aspects of adolescence education: Module 1, Physical Aspects; Module 2, Social Aspects; Module 3, Sex Roles; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. This report on the Social Aspects begins with a general discussion of the program and conceptual framework for the adolescence education package. 6 lessons are included in this module. Lesson 2.1 is devoted to adolescent sexuality or sexual behavior. Each lesson has a set of objectives, time required, and materials, and usually has procedures, information sheet, and suggested activities outlines. Lesson 2.2 is concerned with sexuality in childhood and adolescence. Lesson 2.3 deals with love. Lesson 2.4 consists of dating and relationships. Lesson 2.5 provides information on adolescent pregnancy in terms of the growing number and the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the premarital and marital states. The other objective is to explore individual feelings and attitudes about adolescent pregnancy and sexual behavior. Lesson 2.6 is on a moral code of ethics, their roles and function. An example of the information sheet on love is as follows: several paragraphs describe various aspects of love as sharing, caring, action, time and sacrifice, not always agreement, a relationship, the glue to hold families together, and so on. There are different types of love: love for parents, love among siblings, love for friends, conjugal love. Mature love is differentiated from immature love by the degree of caring about the other person as more important to you than having the other person care for you. Immature love is the reverse where one is more concerned with having the other person care about you and involves more taking than giving. Communication is sometimes blocked in order to avoid hurting the other's feelings, is directed to another instead of directly to one's partner, or is misdirected to a small action instead of focusing on the larger concern. Partners must conscientiously work on getting through to each other. Spontaneity and mutual confidence will develop as each becomes more comfortable with the other.
WORLD AIDS DAY NEWSLETTER. 1991 Jul; (1):1-4.This year's World AIDS Day, an annual observance day and a day to strengthen worldwide efforts to stop AIDS, will stress the need for forming partnerships in order to combat the disease. As this article explain, the AIDS pandemic has shown not only physical, but also psychological manifestations. AIDS has widened the divisions along race, sex, and social lines. For example, while in some countries prostitutes have been arrested on charges of being public health risks, their clients have not been imprisoned. Also, many groups considered to be high-risk -- like Haitians in the US -- have suffered reprisals from society at large. But as the article points out, ostracism and quarantine are inappropriate and cruel responses to AIDS, sine the disease spreads through deliberate human behavior (especially sexual behavior) and not ordinary behavior. Not only does ostracism of AIDS victims constitute human rights violations, it also works against controlling the spread of the disease. Those outside the stigmatized groups may consider themselves to be invulnerable to the disease. Furthermore, discrimination against HIV-infected people may discourage these individuals from contacting health and social services. The World Health Organization (WHO), the organizer of World AIDS Day, reports that in little over a decade, 8-10 million people worldwide have become infected with HIV, and that 1.5 million have developed AIDS. By the year 2000, WHO believes that the figures will rise to 30-40 million HIV cases and 10-15 million AIDS cases. In order to control the disease, it is necessary to end the isolation of groups and to form partnerships. Some of the most important partnerships, are between infected and noninfected people, between peers, and between men and women.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL. 1988 Jan; 23(1):55-7.The local associations of Maisons Familiales (MF) in Senegal periodically conduct participatory evaluations of community projects. 2 evaluations often used include internal exercises by and for the staff, such as a written questionnaire, and an assisted self evaluation. An assisted self evaluation often involves participant subgroups discussing problems and possible solutions with each subgroup later sharing items with a national and/or a foreign evaluation facilitator. The facilitator(s) meets with all the subgroups and brings out important issues in the subgroups, then all the subgroups discuss the issues and form a consensus on what actions should be taken. The training staff at an MF center thought the program was fine based on what a few people said, but, after looking at statistics on the number of trainees over a couple of years, the staff learned that the numbers have declined. The staff then discussed the situation and learned that a barrier had developed between the training staff and villagers. As in any evaluation, one must distinguish between the subjective view (what people say) and objective reality (the actual situation using data). In another type of self evaluation, a group discussed dynamism in a village and came up with 4 different points of view. After visiting a "dynamic" and a "nondynamic" village using the 4 points as measurements, the group learned that its previous impressions of the 2 villages were not completely borne out. This evaluation helped the staff to see villagers' priorities and to listen better. Despite wanting to conduct a real impact evaluation, workers have not yet done so because they do not have time to schedule evaluations, do not have enough base line data, and do not know how to account for influences on changes in the villages other than the MF training programs.
JOURNAL OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR. 1989 Dec; 30(4):345-52.Third World originated in the 1950s as a political ideology and concept. As an empirical reality it is a world characterized by economic underdevelopment. Attention is beginning to focus on its cultural and human aspects, including health and health care. The 9 articles in this special issue show the application of sociology to the study of 3rd World health and health care. The articles are classified into 4 categories--social factors in disease, utilization of health services, provider-patient relationships, and organization of health services. Their relationship to research issues and methods in medical sociology is discussed. In conclusion, the World Health Organization's (WHO) "Health for ALL" program is critiqued in light of finding in the articles. 2 topics require closer sociological analysis than they have received, and these are discussed. The 1st concerns health manpower, especially the role of the physician, in relation to 3rd World health priorities. The 2nd is the place of traditional health personnel and practices within the general development of national health resources. Given the high regard for technical clinical skill that is imparted through medical education worldwide, it is not clear that 3rd World physicians can be persuaded to become health educators or coordinators for social resources, however necessary those functions may be. Even so, the Health for All agenda can switch to another priority, namely, the radical reform of medical education to produce physicians who are more strongly oriented toward goals of community health and less concerned with technical skill. (author's modified)
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1987. , ii, 30 p.Development communication is a social process that involves the sharing of knowledge aimed at reaching a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs, and capacities of all concerned. Communication by itself cannot bring about rural development, but the other components of development--infrastructure, supplies, and services--will not be used to full advantage without an exchange of knowledge between people at all levels. Past experience confirms the value of development communication when it is built into development programming from the start and influences project design and implementation. The strategic role of communication in development has been insufficiently recognized by governments, donor agencies, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) itself. A technological emphasis has predominated, with little attention to the behavioral changes required by the development process. The FAO's Development Support Communication Branch has focused on media-oriented approaches without promoting communication systems that integrate multimedia approaches with interpersonal approaches at all levels. To remedy this situation, it is recommended that the FAO provide orientation to programming staff and missions on the role of communication in development; improve linkages between the Development Support Communication Branch and the technical divisions of the FAO; reorient the Branch's activities to strengthen its training functions; and disseminate research and information to member governments. In addition, governments are urged to recognize more fully that development is based largely on voluntary change by people; that communication can lead to the proper situation analysis, research, and participation testing necessary to ensure that activities are people-oriented and needs-related; and that suitable budgets must be allotted for development communication.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 Aug. 50  p.The need for family life education today is urgent. The rapid social changes taking place around the world are altering traditional family and community structures and values, and the task of preparing young people to cope with adult life has become more difficult. If family life education is to succeed, it must meet the needs of the young people for whom it is designed. Some common needs of young people are: coping with the physical and emotional changes of adolescence; establishing and maintaining satisfying personal relationships; understanding and responding positively to changing situations, e.g. the changing roles of men and women; and developing the necessary values and skills for successful marriage, child-rearing and social participation in the wider community. The potential scope for family life education programs encompasses psychological and emotional, social, developmental, moral, health, economic, welfare and legal components. The integration of these perspectives into family life education programs are issues which are explored in many of the materials listed in this bibliography. The bibliography is divided into 5 sections. It includes a listing of materials which discuss the definition, content and scope of family life education. It also presents family life bibliographies, curriculum guides, and training manuals and handbooks. Finally, it deals with studies of family life education programs and projects. Publishers' addresses are listed at the end of the bibliography.
In: Methods of intercultural communications research, edited by William B. Gudykunst [and] Young Yun Kim. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1984. 185-94. (International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Vol. VIII)This chapter weds the traditions of rhetorical analysis to those of content analysis in the study of international organization pronouncements, that is, it relates a research perspective, explores possible extensions of that perspective, applies that perspective to intercultural communication, and critiques that application. Like Kenneth Burke, the author finds strength in paradoxes. Content analysis translates frequency of occurrence of certain symbols into summary judgments and comparisons of content of the discourse. By marking off units of time or space, it tallies the nature and types of symbols or classes of symbols per unit, prior to estimating or extrapolating the results to spaces or periods not directly observed. The concerns of the content analyst focus on the choice of a unit, the development and clear description of categories of symbols or themes to be quantified, the assurance that coders will intersubjectively agree on assignment of symbols to categories, and the ascertainment of direction for the materials counted. Content analysis is a means of counting and judging some matter based upon statistical central tendencies, yet the question remains as to which features of meaning are quantifiable. The suspicion that, more often than not, things of greater importance will be stated ina communique in direct proportion to their importance, is countered many times in cultural practice. Cultural indirection, ritual, cultural hierarchy, cultural "non sequiturs," or like variables weaken the tie between quantity and quality. Rhetoricians and humanists tend to be concerned with quality of communicative acts more than quantity. Kenneth Burke is an exception to this rule. He argues in "Philosophy of Literary Form" the need for measures of central tendency to disclose important concepts on the mind of a communicator. This analysis is extended from the study of a writer to a speaker, from a speaker to a set of speakers who face the same stimulus, to the definition of an outlook for an international organization, to the application of that organizational outlook to take to task a disrespectful member state. The progression, pairing, or contrasting of terms by a speaker disclose the "cornerstone terms" of the speaker's motivation. Presumably, the calculation of cornerstone points for persons suggests such points for groups or organizations of affiliation by that person; and the comparison of such points between groups and organizations will disclose the calculus for entire cultures. As Burke's symbolic analysis technique effectively discloses motivations ("factors") of the communicator, this holds out the hope that the tenets of a given culture could be disclosed through the analysis of cultural materials.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Communication Institute, July 1977. (A Synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper No. 2) 148 pThe aims and purposes of communication training are examined, tracing the evolution of training in family planning communications from the early stages of national program developments to the present. Topics discussed include training needs and the clientele of training programs including those involved in face-to-face communications, personnel responsible for integrating interpersonal and mass communications, mass media personnel, and specialists in the production of communications materials. Other topics covered include training for integrated family planning and development programs, national and regional training centers, university based/academic programs, the training of trainers, and training facilities. Examples of both successful and unsuccessful training programs are used to illustrate the many different aspects of population/family planning communications training. An assessment is made of recent developments and future prospects in the field.(AUTHOR'S, MODIFIED)