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Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 2014 Jun; 40(6):924-941.This article investigates the complex relationship between the practices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the field of refugee protection and the more recent political rationality of 'migration management' by drawing from governmentality studies. It is argued that the dissemination of UNHCR's own refugee protection discourse creates certain 'figures of migration' allowing for justifying the build-up and perfection of border controls, which in turn enable any attempt to 'manage' migration in the first place. Conversely, the problematisation of population movements as 'mixed migration flows' allows UNHCR to enlarge its field of activitiy despite its narrow mandate by actively participating in the promotion, planning and implementation of migration management systems. Based on ethnographic research in Turkey and Morocco, this article demonstrates, furthermore, that UNHCR's refugee protection discourse and the emerging migration management paradigm are both based on a methodological nationalism, share an authoritarian potential and yield de-politicising effects. What UNHCR's recent embracing of the migration management paradigm together with its active involvement in respective practices then brings to the fore is that UNHCR is part of a global police of populations.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2003. 37 p. (SHS/SRP/MIG/2003/PI/H/2)Globalization and increased population flows across borders have created a daunting challenge for the international community: the need to address the particular vulnerability of migrants. While migrant workers often make significant contributions to the economies and societies of the State in which they work and of their State of origin they remain, from a legal point of view, more vulnerable than many other groups who have the benefit of clearer and more wide-ranging international and regional legal protections. This is because the development and acceptance - especially from more developed States - of international legal standards to protect migrants' rights has been very slow, with the UN Convention on the Protection of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families only entering into force in 2003. The rights contained in the Migrant Workers' Convention are human rights. They are indicators as to how governments may protect migrants and better manage the problems and opportunities of international migration. This may also help avoid the dangers of racism, intolerance and xenophobia which may result when there is not a balanced view of both positive and negative aspects of migration movements and their effects on the economies and societies of both host States and States of origin. The global challenge which international migration represents calls for a global approach. UNESCO - as part of its role in the field of migration, social integration and cultural diversity - has been bringing together researchers, policy-makers, NGOs and other interested parties to deal with various facets of this challenge, including the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity and the launch of a much needed campaign for the ratification of the Migrant Workers' Convention. (author's)
Migrants as transnational development agents: An inquiry into the newest round of the migration - development nexus.
Population, Space and Place. 2008; 14(1):21-42.Migrant networks and organisations have emerged as development agents. They interact with state institutions in flows of financial remittances, knowledge, and political ideas. In the discursive dimension, the new enthusiasm on the part of OECD states and international organisations, such as the World Bank, for migrant remittances, migrant associations and their role in development, is a sign of two trends which have coincided. Firstly, community as a principle of development has come to supplement principles of social order such as the market and the state. Secondly, in the current round of the migration-development nexus, migrants in general and transnational collective actors in particular have been constituted by states and international organisations as a significant agent. In the institutional dimension, agents such as hometown associations, networks of businesspersons, epistemic networks and political diasporas have emerged as collective actors. These formations are not unitary actors, and they are frequently in conflict with states and communities of origin. The analysis concludes with reflections of how national states structure the transnational spaces in which non-state actors are engaged in cross-border flows, leading towards a tight linkage between migration control, immigrant incorporation and development cooperation. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2006.  p.Today, women constitute almost half of all international migrants worldwide - 95 million. Yet, despite contributions to poverty reduction and struggling economies, it is only recently that the international community has begun to grasp the significance of what migrant women have to offer. And it is only recently that policymakers are acknowledging the particular challenges and risks women confront when venturing into new lands. Every year millions of women working millions of jobs overseas send hundreds of millions of dollars in remittance funds back to their homes and communities. These funds go to fill hungry bellies, clothe and educate children, provide health care and generally improve living standards for loved ones left behind. For host countries, the labour of migrant women is so embedded into the very fabric of society that it goes virtually unnoticed. Migrant women toil in the households of working families, soothe the sick and comfort the elderly. They contribute their technical and professional expertise, pay taxes and quietly support a quality of life that many take for granted. (excerpt)
Review and appraisal of the progress made in achieving the goals and objectives of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: the 2004 report.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/235)This report is divided into an introduction and seven sections. The first two sections provide an overview of population levels and trends, and population growth, structure and distribution in the world and its major regions. These are followed by four sections focusing on clusters of issues: reproductive rights and reproductive health, health and mortality, international migration, and population programmes. The final section summarizes the major conclusions of the report. Reflected in the discussions in all the sections, both explicitly and implicitly, are three interrelated factors that affect implementation of all the recommendations of the Programme of Action, namely, availability of financial and human resources, institutional capacities, and partnerships among Governments, the international community, non-governmental organizations and the civil society. The full implementation of the Programme of Action requires concerted action on these three fronts. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Feb. 111 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 3(A))South Africa's vibrant and diverse economy is a powerful draw for Africans from other countries migrating in search of work. But the chance of earning a wage can come with a price: If undocumented, foreign migrants are liable to be arrested, detained, and deported in circumstances and under conditions that flout South Africa's own laws. And as highlighted by the situation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, both documented and undocumented foreign farm workers may have their rights under South Africa's basic employment law protections violated by employers in ways ranging from wage exploitation to uncompensated workplace injury, and from appalling housing conditions to workplace violence. Human Rights Watch has conducted research on the situation and experiences of migrant workers around the globe. Its research demonstrates that migrant workers, whether documented or undocumented, are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. Such abuses can be the result of many different factors includinginadequate legal protections, illegal actions of unscrupulous employers or state officials, and lack of state capacity or political will to enforce legal protections and to hold abusive employers and officials to account. The focus of this report is principally the situation of Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in South Africa's Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005. 57 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/248)Part one of this report provides a global overview of demographic trends for major areas and selected countries. It reviews major population trends relating to population size and growth, urbanization and city growth, population ageing, fertility and contraception, mortality, including HIV/AIDS, and international migration. In addition, a section on population policies has been included, in which the concerns and responses of Governments to the major population trends are summarized. The outcomes of the United Nations conferences convened during the 1990s set an ambitious development agenda reaffirmed by the United Nations Millennium Declaration in September 2000. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, being one of the major United Nations conferences of the decade, addressed all population aspects relevant for development and provided in its Programme of Action a comprehensive set of measures to achieve the development objectives identified. Given the crucial importance of population factors for development, the full implementation of the Programme of Action and the key actions for its further implementation will significantly contribute to the achievement of the universally agreed development goals, including those in the Millennium Declaration. Part two discusses the relevance that particular actions contained in those documents have for the attainment of universally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. It also describes the key population trends relevant for development and the human rights basis that underpins key conference objectives and recommendations for action. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2006;  p..The Movement of people across national borders is a phenomenon increasingly relevant to global public policy. Yet, although international migration affects millions of people all over the world and has crucial repercussions on the balances in and between States, deep analyses and adequate discussions of migration-related issues are often pushed to the side of political debates. In many cases, States have found themselves unable to deal with sudden changes or developments in the field of migration. The need for a global response ends up being handled at either the national or local level and in a closed manner, as the issue is often considered "too political" to be dealt with at the international level. As a result, immigration policies are often considered just a matter of elaborated legal mechanisms that exclude illegal and unauthorized migrants from national territories. A coordinated policy framework dealing with the rights of people moving across borders, supported by an international migration institution able to take and implement effective decisions, is therefore of utmost importance. (excerpt)
International Migration. 2006; 44(1):13-19.The Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) was established as a means of moving beyond the political deadlock which had effectively paralyzed international discussion on migration for more than a decade. Its mandate was to provide the framework within which a "coherent, comprehensive and global" response to the issue of international migration could be developed. It would, it was hoped, succeed in identifying the issues in such a way that United Nations (UN) member states would agree to talk about a subject which had proved too sensitive for formal discussion. It is sometimes the case that texts which are drafted in general terms, and with the object of finding a consensus between conflicting interests, disappoint specialists. But the fact that the Commission's report is modest in some of its findings is not a reason to criticize it. Seen within its international context, the report succeeds as a general analysis of the issues, and in setting out broad -- and positive -- policy principles, and recommendations for action. (excerpt)
Compendium of recommendations on international migration and development: the United Nations Development Agenda and the Global Commission on International Migration compared.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2006. 122 p. (ESA/P/WP.197)This report has two objectives. The first is to provide the elements of the United Nations framework on international migration by extracting from the outcome documents of the various conferences and summits those parts that relate to international migration. Hence, this report presents a compilation of all the relevant principles, guidelines, commitments and recommendations for action in the area of international migration that have been adopted so far by Member States of the United Nations. Such a set constitutes the solid foundation on which the high-level dialogue on international migration and development can build. The United Nations conferences and summits considered include: (a) the two world summits held since 2000; (b) all the intergovernmental conferences on population held since 1974, and (c) other major United Nations conferences and summits held since 1990 that contain recommendations relative to international migration. In extracting text from the outcome documents of conferences and summits, the aim has also been one of comprehensiveness. All parts of the outcome documents dealing with international migration issues have been included in this report. In addition, parts that provide useful guidance regarding the formulation of policies in general, the organization of partnerships for development, the pursuit of technical cooperation or research, the conditions for action at the national or international levels, or the variants of international cooperation, and that may be relevant in addressing international migration issues, have also been included. The second objective of this report is to compare the recommendations made by the Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) with recommendations or commitments that Member States of the United Nations have already adopted by consensus in the various United Nations conferences and summits. (excerpt)
Female Migrants: Bridging the Gaps throughout the Life Cycle. Selected papers of the UNFPA-IOM Expert Group Meeting, New York, 2-3 May 2006.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 136 p.Women make up nearly half of all migrants, an estimated 95 million of 191 million people living outside their countries of origin in 2005. Having said this, after many years of observing migration and collecting data there is remarkably little reliable information about women as migrants. This anomaly underlines their continuing invisibility to policymakers and development planners. The High-Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development by the General Assembly on 14-15 September 2006 offers the best opportunity in a generation to address the rights, needs, capabilities and contribution of women migrants. Equal numbers do not confer equality of treatment. Women have fewer opportunities than men for legal migration; many women become irregular migrants with concomitant lack of support and exposure to risk. Whether they migrate legally or not, alone or as members of a family unit, women are more vulnerable than men to violence and exploitation. Their needs for health care, including reproductive health care, and other services are less likely to be met. They have more limited opportunities than men for social integration and political participation. Migration can be beneficial, both for women and for the countries which send and receive them. Women migrants make a significant economic contribution through their labour, both to their countries of destination and, through remittances, to their countries of origin. In societies where women's power to move autonomously is limited, the act of migration is in itself empowering. It stimulates change in women migrants themselves, and in the societies which send and receive them. In the process women's migration can become a force for removing existing gender imbalances and inequities, and for changing underlying conditions so that new imbalances and inequities do not arise. Women's voluntary migration is a powerful force for positive change in countries both of origin and of destination. (excerpt)
Evolution of national population policies since the United Nations 1954 World Population Conference.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):297-328.Population policy did not figure prominently at the 1954 United Nations World Population Conference in Rome. It was a commonly held view at the time that "population matters" were in the personal and family sphere and thus, not an appropriate area of involvement for Governments. Nevertheless, some discussion took place on policies to reduce population growth in less developed regions, on policies to raise fertility in more developed regions, on the impact of population ageing and on the consequences of international migration for sending and receiving countries. This paper tracks Government's views and policies on population and development since the 1954 Rome Conference. Among other things, it considers the central role played by United Nations global population conferences in facilitating international cooperation and national government entrance into embracing population policies. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):27-48.The International Conference Trends and Problems of the World Population in the 21st Century. 50 years since Rome 1954, was held in Rome, under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic, at the "Accademia dei Lincei" on the 26th and 27th of May 2005 and at University of Rome "La Sapienza" on the 28th of May 2005. Organized by the Accademia dei Lincei, the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and its Department of Demograpy, the Conference was financially supported by the Banca d' Italia and the Compagnia di San Paolo. After the five fundamental United Nations Conferences on Population - held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, and the following, intergovernmental, held in Bucarest in 1974, Mexico City in 1984 and in Cairo in 1994 - this Conference has been a new, important occasion for the analysis and the debate on population problems bringing them back to Rome after the first pionieristic, merely academic, Conference organized by the United Nations in Rome in September 1954. At that time in Rome the debate highlighted trends and problems that would have characterized the world population during the second half of the 20th century and that have contributed in defining the population policy carried out by the UN and by the single countries. This time, once again in Rome, the aim has been to identify trends and problems that are likely to affect the world population in the first half of the 21st century and to provide cues able to define and build population policies. In one word to revitalize the debate on population issues which have been, for some time, languishing both in the UN and in many countries. (excerpt)
International Review of Victimology. 2004; 11(1):11-32.This article will define the concepts of smuggling and trafficking in human beings and discuss the difficulty of applying these definitions. The illegal markets that profit from the trafficking of persons will be discussed. The reader will be introduced to the United Nations Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings, and in particular, the pilot project carried out in the. Philippines. The experiences of victims of trafficking obtained in the Philippines, Japan and Malaysia will be presented. The discussion closes with brief recommendations to protect and assist victims of exploitation. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23: p..An expert group meeting on the 1990 World Population and Housing Census Programme was held at Headquarters from 11 to 15 November. A resolution adopted in May 1985 by the Economic and Social Council on the recommendation of the Statistical Commission had requested the Secretary-General to proceed with the development of a 1990 World Population and Housing Census Programme, to be carried out during 1985-1994, and to make all of the necessary preparations with a view to assisting interested Member States in planning and carrying out improved censuses. The resolution had also noted with satisfaction the "unprecedented efforts" made by State Members, in all regions, to carry out population and housing censuses as part of the 1980 World Population and Housing Census Programme. In that decade, a census of population or a census of population and housing had been carried out in 191 countries or areas of the world. Thus, over 95 per cent of the world's population had been enumerated. (excerpt)
Population conference set for 1994; ageing, international migration examined - International Conference on Population and Development.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2): p..Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund and Secretary-General of the Conference, said preparations for the event reflected the enormous needs and challenges of the future, as well as the notable advances that had been made in the population field, particularly by developing countries in implementing policies and programmes. Egypt and Tunisia both have offered to host the Conference, scheduled for August 1994. Further preparatory meetings are planned in August 1993 and early 1994. It would be the fifth international population conference convened by the UN. Conferences held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965 were purely technical meetings, limited to scientific discussions on population topics. Subsequent intergovernmental conferences in Bucharest in 1974 and in Mexico City in 1984 were concerned with establishing objectives, principles and goals, and making recommendations in the population field. (excerpt)
International migration and the Millennium Development Goals. Selected papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting, Marrakech, Morocco, 11-12 May 2005.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) hosted an Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals in Marrakech, Morocco on 11-12 May 2005. Invited experts were requested to speak on a number of topics relating to migration and development, including: poverty reduction, health, gender, environment, and global partnerships for development with a view towards exploring migration as both a facilitating and constraining factor in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This report is a compilation of selected papers presented at the meeting together with a synopsis of the discussion highlighting some of the more salient points raised by the experts. It also reflects an attempt to spur the debate further by suggesting possibilities for programmatic activities in the areas of data and research, policy and capacity development. As international migration gains greater scope and impact, UNFPA and other international entities have a critical role in facilitating strategic directions that strengthen responses to its challenges while capitalizing on the opportunities that migration presents to the individual migrants, their larger community and both sending and receiving countries. (excerpt)
Workers' remittances: a boon to development. Money sent home by African migrants rivals development aid.
Africa Renewal. 2005 Oct; 19(3):10-13.Every day, thousands of Africans living abroad line up in money-transfer offices to wire home the odd dollar they are able to save. From the US, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and France -- the top sources of remittances to developing countries -- some of the money finds its way deep into the rural areas of Africa. There, it may send a child to school, build a house or buy food to sustain those remaining at home. Over the years, some of the money has made its way to the Kayes region of Mali. There, the World Bank reports, contributions from Malians living in France have helped build 60 per cent of the infrastructure. About 40 Malian migrant associations in France supported nearly 150 projects, valued at €3 mn over a decade. (excerpt)
International Migration Review. 1973 Summer; 7(2):189-190.A fact emerged from the 35th session of the Council of the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) is the importance of the Refugee Migration, although a slight increase in the National Migration Programme is foreseen for 1973. As of November 30, 1972, 56, 368 Refugees had already been moved by ICEM to countries of resettlement and this number was close to 58,000 by the end of the year. A similar number of Refugee Migration movements is estimated for 1973. The ICEM Refugee Programme for 1972 and 1973 comprises: the Jews emigrating to Israel; they will be at least 36,000 in 1972 (32,000 from the USSR and 4,000 from other countries) and it is estimated that another 36,000 will migrate in 1973; the other Eastern European refugees emigrating to other countries; some 4,600 have departed or are being processed for resettlement in Austria and 3,300 in Italy. Movements in 1973 are estimated at about the same level as in 1972, but could be higher because of an increase in newly arriving refugees during the last quarter of 1972; the Cuban refugees from Spain; also more than 6,000 have migrated in 1972 (mainly to USA), another 25,000 are still awaiting resettlement overseas and some 1,000 new refugees continue to arrive each month in Spain. This influx represents a problem since it is foreseen that only 6,000 will depart to immigration countries in 1973; the refugees emigrating from the Middle East, mainly Armenians, whose number is about 1,000 per year for 1972 and 1973; the non-Europeans from the Far-East concern yearly about 3,000 refugees from countries in South East Asia, many emigrating to the USA. (excerpt)
Population Index. 1948 Apr; 14(2):97-104.Research in migration has been peculiarly susceptible to the changing problems of the areas and the periods in which demographers work. American studies of international movements diminished after the passage of Exclusion Acts, and virtually ceased as immigration dwindled during the depression years. On the other hand, surveys of internal migration proliferated as the facts of mass unemployment and the social approaches of the New Deal focused governmental attention on the relation of people to resources and to economic opportunity. Geographers and historians took over the field the demographers had vacated. The studies of pioneer settlement directed by Isaiah Bowman and those of Marcus Hansen dealing with the Atlantic crossing are outstanding illustrations of this non-demographic research on essentially demographic problems. Even when demographers investigated international movements they served principally as quantitative analysts of historical exchanges. This is not to disparage such studies as that of Truesdell on the Canadian in the United States, or of Coates on the United States immigrant in Canada, but merely to emphasize the point that Americans regarded international migration as an issue of the past. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Dec; 6(4):7-8.In a report issued in November, the Population Division of the UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs has estimated that the world’s population may stabilize at about 9 billion by the year 2300. The document, World Population 2300, provides extensive data showing low, medium and high projections for each country of the world. All projected scenarios share the same assumptions about steady decline of mortality after 2050, increase in life expectancy, and zero international migration after 2050. The scenarios are based on assumptions for 2050, which were set out in the UN’s World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, Volumes I and II. The following major findings are excerpted from the report. (excerpt)
Annan addresses European Parliament on migration and accepts Andrei Sakharov prize for freedom of thought.
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):10-11.I am deeply touched that you have honored my friend and colleague, Sergio Vieira de Mello, and the many other U.N. staff who have lost their lives in working for peace in the world. I am proud to accept the Andrei Sakharov Prize in memory of them. This Prize for Freedom of Thought is not only a worthy recognition of the ultimate sacrifice that they made in the cause of peace. It is also a welcome acknowledge of the kinds of people they were. The brave men and women we lost in Baghdad on 19 August – U.N. staff and others – were free spirits and free thinkers and also soldiers of humanity and of peace. Earlier, President Cox and I met some of the survivors of the attack, and family members of those who were killed or injured, and, as you know, they are with us in the Chamber now. I thank them for joining us today, and I accept this Prize in their name too. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Apr; 6(1):1-15.On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development, the United Nations Population Division has produced a major report, which concludes that the decade since the adoption of the Program of Action has been one of substantial progress. The world is beginning to see the end of rapid population growth, couples are closer to achieving their desired family size and spacing of children, mortality is declining in most countries and there is evidence that many countries are taking the necessary steps to confront HIV/AIDS and other mortality crises, and Governments are initiating processes to address concerns related to international migration. While much progress has been made in the implementation of the Program of Action during the last 10 years, there have also been shortfalls and gaps. The progress has not been universal and, based on current trends, many countries may fall short of the agreed goals of the Program of Action. To achieve the goals and objectives of the Program of Action, continued efforts and commitment are needed to mobilize sufficient human and financial resources, to strengthen institutional capacities, and to nurture partnerships among Governments, the international community, non-governmental organizations and civil society. With such efforts and commitment, the next review and appraisal can be expected to show broader and deeper progress in achieving the goals and objectives of the Program of Action. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003 Dec. 36 p. (Health and Human Rights Publication Series No. 4)This publication provides an overview of some of the key challenges for policy-makers in addressing the linkages between migration, health and human rights. It recognizes that there is limited data available and thus does not provide a full picture. It attempts to provide a useful platform to stimulate action towards addressing migration and health in a comprehensive and human rights-sensitive way. The first section explains why we are addressing the issue of migration and health and what is meant by doing this through a human rights framework. It then explores some of the terminology used and what is known about the magnitude of, and reasons for, migration. The second section links the reasons why people migrate with the health and human rights implications of moving on the populations left behind. It focuses attention on the issue of migrating health professionals by highlighting relevant trends, financial implications and ongoing trade negotiations. The third section considers the health implications for those on the move both in the context of public health as well as in relation to the health of the individual. It considers the various ways in which migration is managed, such as detaining and screening at the border. The last section, section four, considers the health and human rights issues of migrants once in the host country. It focuses particular attention on the most vulnerable categories of migrants and highlights some of the key challenges to promoting and protecting their health. (excerpt)
International Migration. 2004; 42(5):71-97.The issue of cross-border migration in South-East and East Asia is linked to the integration of regional, if not global, labour markets. The types of labour that arc currently in demand have changed substantially since the 1990s in terms of (1) overall magnitude, (2) gender composition, and (3) increased diversification. This paper, however, focuses upon those workers classified as unskilled as they constitute numerically the largest and most vulnerable group. The challenges to provide adequate protection from, and prevention of, exploitative and abusive practices that seriously minimize the socio-economic benefits for these workers are linked to migration policies and the issue of rights in the origin and destination countries. This paper's objective is to provide a broad outline of the emerging trends and issues revolving around contemporary cross-border labour migration and the politics of migrants' rights in South-East and East Asia, illustrated by the difficulties experienced with the ratification of the 1990 United Nations Convention on the Rights of All Migrants and their Families (ICMR). The data this paper is based upon were collected for a report commissioned by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) with fieldwork carried out in seven countries located in the Asia Pacific region. It is argued that ratification of the ICMR is obstructed by politics and by a lack of political will. A rights-based approach to the protection of migrant labour is thus related to a number of macro and micro level issues, revolving around development and practices of "good governance" in addition to interstate relations. This means that the promotion of migrants' lights requires a holistic approach addressing national and transnational issues in an era of increasing mobility across border (author's)