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East Asian Science, Technology and Society. 2016 Dec; 10(4):445-467.This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
Levels and trends in child malnutrition. UNICEF/ WHO / World Bank Group joint child malnutrition estimates: key findings of the 2017 edition.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017. 16 p.The inter-agency team released new joint estimates for child stunting, overweight, underweight, wasting and severe wasting (May 2017 edition) using the same methodology as in previous years. These new estimates supersede former analyses results published by UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank Group. Given that country data are at maximum available from surveys conducted in the year previous to when the modelling exercise takes place, in 2017 the joint estimates were derived up to 2016 with extrapolation for stunting until 2025.
Washington, D.C., PAI, 2015 Aug. 2 p.There are more people displaced in the world today than at any other point in history, and more than 75 percent of those needing humanitarian assistance are women and children. In humanitarian emergencies, many women want to avoid pregnancy; however they lack access to the services and supplies that would allow them to delay pregnancy. To meet the reproductive health needs of people in humanitarian emergencies, organizations and policymakers should know the answers to these 10 critical questions.
Washington, D.C., PAI, 2016 Oct. 2 p.When the Global Financing Facility (GFF) was announced in 2014, it promised a “pioneering” way to finance and improve the lives of women, adolescents, children and newborns through provision of reproductive, maternal newborn and child health programs and policies. Family planning advocates and implementers were interested in the possibility of additional funds particularly as a global contraceptives funding crisis is looming, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are being operationalized. To date, the GFF has had three rounds of countries selected to receive funding. In the first round, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania were selected. In the second round, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda were selected. In the third round, Guatemala, Guinea, Myanmar and Sierra Leone were selected. To better understand the role of the GFF in filling funding gaps for family planning and contraceptive procurement, we analyzed the four published investment cases for Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Uganda.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2015. 68 p.Founded in 2002, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) is one of the world’s largest multilateral health funders, disbursing $3-$4 billion a year across 100-plus countries. Many of these countries rely on Global Fund monies to finance their respective disease responses -- and for their citizens, the efficient and effective use of Global Fund monies can be the difference between life and death. Many researchers and policymakers have hypothesized that models tying grant payments to achieved and verified results -- referred to in this report as next generation financing models -- offer an opportunity for the Global Fund to push forward its strategic interests and accelerate the impact of its investments. Free from year-to-year disbursement pressure (like government agencies) and rigid allocation policies (like the World Bank’s International Development Association), the Global Fund is also uniquely equipped to push forward innovative financing models. But despite interest, the how of new grant designs remains a challenge. Realizing their potential requires technical know-how and careful, strategic decisionmaking that responds to specific country and epidemiological contexts -- all with little evidence or experience to guide the way. This report thus addresses the how of next generation financing models -- that is, the concrete steps needed to change the basis of payment from expenses to something else: outputs, outcomes, or impact. (Excerpts)
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Feb. 38 p. (Center for Global Development Working Paper 425)This paper uses contract theory to suggest simple contract designs that could be used by the Global Fund. Using a basic model of procurement, we lay out five alternative options and consider when each is likely to be most appropriate. The rest of the paper then discusses how one can build a real-world contract from these theoretical foundations, and how these contracts should be adapted to different contexts when the basic assumptions do not hold. Finally, we provide a synthesis of these various results with the aim of guiding policy makers as to when and how ‘results-based’ incentive contracts can be used in practice.
Policy brief on the case for investing in research to increase access to and use of contraception among adolescents.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2015 Mar. 4 p.This document outlines why governments and donors should invest now in research to help determine and implement the most effective and efficient ways to enable adolescents to access and use contraception. It summarizes the findings of a longer technical report.
Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
Lancet. 2017; 390:324-332.In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage. We highlight three major trends in global health governance more broadly that relate to this development: towards more discretionary funding and away from core or longer-term funding; towards defined multi-stakeholder governance and away from traditional government-centred representation and decision-making; and towards narrower mandates or problem-focused vertical initiatives and away from broader systemic goals.
WPA International Competency-Based Curriculum for Mental Health Providers on Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Against Women.
World Psychiatry. 2017 Jun; 16(2):223-224.Add to my documents.
Lancet. 2016 Nov 26; 388(10060):2579.Add to my documents.
Midwifery. 2016 Feb; 33:7.Add to my documents.
Delivering HIV services in partnership: factors affecting collaborative working in a South African HIV programme.
Globalization and Health. 2017 Jan 13; 13(1):3.BACKGROUND: The involvement of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) in delivering health services in low and middle income countries (LMICs) depends on effective collaborative working at scales from the local to the international, and a single GHI is effectively constructed of multiple collaborations. Research is needed focusing on how collaboration functions in GHIs at the level of health service management. Here, collaboration between local implementing agencies and departments of health involves distinct power dynamics and tensions. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of a health partnership in South Africa, this article examines how organisational power dynamics affected the operation of the partnership across five dimensions of collaboration: governance, administration, organisational autonomy, mutuality, and norms of trust and reciprocity. RESULTS: Managing the tension between the power to provide resources held by the implementing agency and the local Departments' of Health power to access the populations in need of these resources proved critical to ensuring that the collaboration achieved its aims and shaped the way that each domain of collaboration functioned in the partnership. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that it is important for public health practitioners to critically examine the ways in which collaboration functions across the scales in which they work and to pay particular attention to how local power dynamics between partner organisations affect programme implementation.
The Cervical Cancer Prevention Initiative: Investing in Cervical Cancer Prevention 2015–2020. Year One update, November 2016.
[Seattle, Washington], PATH, 2016 Nov. 7 p.It has been a year since the groundbreaking meeting in London where the Cervical Cancer Prevention Initiative was launched. This short report documents progress building the Initiative over the past 12 months, and lists key global milestones in cervical cancer during that time.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2017 Jan. 18 p. (Working Paper WP-17-171; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)In 2011, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) published its Evaluation Policy. The policy emphasizes the need to conduct more evaluations of its programs to ensure greater accountability and learning, and it outlines best practices and requirements for conducting evaluations. Since releasing the policy, USAID has commissioned an increasing number of evaluations of its programs. The importance of evaluations for international public health programs has been long recognized, with demand for such evaluations coming from both internal and external sources. Donors or those external to program implementation seek evidence of accomplishments and accountability for resources spent, whereas those involved in program implementation seek evidence to inform and improve program design. Within USAID, the need for more evaluations was driven by the understanding that evaluations provide information and analysis that prevent mistakes from being repeated and increase the likelihood of greater yield from future investments. Finally, there is overall recognition that evaluations should be of high quality and driven by demand, and that results should be communicated to relevant stakeholders. Despite the increased demand for evaluations, there is limited evaluation capacity in many countries where international development programs are implemented. Before strategies to strengthen evaluation capacity can be implemented, it is important first to assess existing evaluation capacity and develop action plans accordingly. We conducted a review of existing assessment tools and guidance documents related to assessing organizations’ capacity to carry out evaluations of international public health programs in order to determine the adequacy of those materials. Here, we summarize the key findings of our review of the literature and provide recommendations for the development of future tools and guidance documents.
Lancet. 2016 May 14; 387(10032):2060-2.Add to my documents.
Health Policy and Planning. 2015 Feb; 30(1):8-18.Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question.
Multistakeholder partnerships with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to improve childhood immunisation: a perspective from global health equity and political determinants of health equity.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2016 Aug; 21(8):965-972.Objective To examine the current partnerships to improve the childhood immunization programme in the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the context of the political determinants of health equity. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify public health collaborations with the DPRK government. Based on the amount of publicly accessible data and a shared approach in health system strengthening among the partners in immunization programmes, the search focused on these partnerships. results The efforts by WHO, UNICEF, GAVI and IVI with the DPRK government improved the delivery of childhood vaccines (e.g. pentavalent vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine, two-dose measles vaccine and Japanese encephalitis vaccine) and strengthened the DPRK health system by equipping health centers, and training all levels of public health personnel for VPD surveillance and immunization service delivery. Conclusion The VPD-focused programmatic activities in the DPRK have improved the delivery of childhood immunization and have created dialogue and contact with the people of the DPRK. These efforts are likely to ameliorate the political isolation of the people of the DPRK and potentially improve global health equity.
[Geneva, Switzerland], International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2016 Feb 29.  p.This document is an emergency plan of action created by International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the country of Honduras. The document includes a situational analysis of the Zika emergency in Honduras and an operational strategy and plan to combat the outbreak.
Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 100 p.In 2000, the United Nations (UN) Member States pledged to work towards a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including the target of a three-quarters reduction in the 1990 maternal mortality ratio (MMR; maternal deaths per 100 000 live births), to be achieved by 2015. This target (MDG 5A) and that of achieving universal access to reproductive health (MDG 5B) together formed the two targets for MDG 5: Improve maternal health. In the five years counting down to the conclusion of the MDGs, a number of initiatives were established to galvanize efforts towards reducing maternal mortality. These included the UN Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, which mobilized efforts towards achieving MDG 4 (Improve child health) as well as MDG 5, and the high-level Commission on Information and Accountability (COIA), which promoted “global reporting, oversight, and accountability on women’s and children’s health”. Now, building on the momentum generated by MDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) establish a transformative new agenda for maternal health towards ending preventable maternal mortality; target 3.1 of SDG 3 is to reduce the global MMR to less than 70 per 100 000 live births by 2030.
Global Call to Action: Maximize the public health impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa.
Malaria Journal. 2015; 14:207.Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy is a highly cost-effective intervention which significantly improves maternal and birth outcomes among mothers and their newborns who live in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission. However, coverage in sub-Saharan Africa remains unacceptably low, calling for urgent action to increase uptake dramatically and maximize its public health impact. The ‘Global Call to Action’ outlines priority actions that will pave the way to success in achieving national and international coverage targets. Immediate action is needed from national health institutions in malaria-endemic countries, the donor community, the research community, members of the pharmaceutical industry and private sector, along with technical partners at the global and local levels, to protect pregnant women and their babies from the preventable, adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy © 2015 Chico et al. Open Access.
London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016.  p.The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (SR-15-118C; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. El Salvador has made enormous progress in terms of family planning over the past five decades. It has reduced fertility rates; it has developed a robust legal and regulatory framework for FP; it has allocated resources for procuring contraceptives for its population; it now offers information and contraceptive services to the entire population of the country with the active participation of civil society organizations, especially women’s organizations.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (SR-15-118F; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Nicaragua has made significant progress in improving its macro-level primary health care indicators, reducing maternal mortality and increasing contraceptive prevalence. There has also been increased participation by the Instituto Nicaragense de Seguridad Social (INSS) in providing family planning services and commodities, thus reducing the burden on health ministry facilities. The government has shown its strong commitment to comprehensive services to improve the health of the population.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (SR-15-118H; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. The family planning movement in Haiti began in the 1960s, only a short time after family planning activities had been initiated in many other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Initially, doctors and demographers worked together to encourage government policies around the issue and to begin private sector service provision programs in much the same way early family planning activities occurred elsewhere. Yet, in comparison with other countries within the region, Haiti’s progress on reproductive health has been slow.
Systematic review of integration between maternal, neonatal, and child health and nutrition and family planning. Final report.
Washington, D.C., Global Health Technical Assistance Project, 2011 May. 284 p. (Report No. 11-01-303-03; USAID Contract No. GHS-I-00-05-00005-00)This reveiw seeks to focus on the MNCHN and FP components of SRH to examine the evidence for MNCHN-FP integration, review the most up-to-date factors that promote or inhibit program effectiveness, discuss best practices and lessons learned, and identify recommendations for program planners, policymakers, and researchers. The objective was to address these key questions: 1) What are the key integration models that are available in the literature and have been evaluated?; 2) What are the key outcomes of these integration approaches?; 3) Do integrated services increase or improve service coverage, cost, quality, use, effectiveness, and health?; 4) What is the quality of the evaluation study designs and the quality of the data from these evaluations?; 5) What types of integration are effective in what context?; 6) What are the best practices, processes, and tools that lead to effective, integrated services? What are the barriers to effective integration?; 7) What are the evidence/research and program gaps? What more do we need to know?; and 8) How can future policies and programs be strengthened?