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United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Feb. 111 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 3(A))South Africa's vibrant and diverse economy is a powerful draw for Africans from other countries migrating in search of work. But the chance of earning a wage can come with a price: If undocumented, foreign migrants are liable to be arrested, detained, and deported in circumstances and under conditions that flout South Africa's own laws. And as highlighted by the situation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, both documented and undocumented foreign farm workers may have their rights under South Africa's basic employment law protections violated by employers in ways ranging from wage exploitation to uncompensated workplace injury, and from appalling housing conditions to workplace violence. Human Rights Watch has conducted research on the situation and experiences of migrant workers around the globe. Its research demonstrates that migrant workers, whether documented or undocumented, are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. Such abuses can be the result of many different factors includinginadequate legal protections, illegal actions of unscrupulous employers or state officials, and lack of state capacity or political will to enforce legal protections and to hold abusive employers and officials to account. The focus of this report is principally the situation of Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in South Africa's Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. (excerpt)
Interview. Walter Kälin, Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons.
Forced Migration Review. 2005 May; (23):4-6.Professor Kälin, in September 2004 you were appointed the ‘UN Secretary-General’s Representative on the human rights of internally displaced persons’. Your predecessor, Dr Francis Deng, did not have the words ‘human rights’ in his title. Does this indicate a change in the mandate? When Dr Deng’s mandate was created by the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1992, there was acknowledgement that internal displacement was a serious human rights problem but in the absence of a treaty on the rights of internally displaced persons, or any provision in a human rights convention explicitly guaranteeing the rights of IDPs, it was almost impossible to assert that IDPs as such had human rights. Of course, as human beings, IDPs when they become uprooted do not lose their human rights but it was unclear what these rights specifically meant in the context of displacement. Since 1998, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement have identified the human rights that are of special relevance for IDPs and have spelled out, in more detail, what is implicit in these guarantees. The change in title of my mandate suggests that the concept of the human rights of IDPs is, at least in principle, accepted today by the international community and indicates a certain redirection of the mandate as it puts more emphasis on the protection of the rights of IDPs. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003 Dec. 36 p. (Health and Human Rights Publication Series No. 4)This publication provides an overview of some of the key challenges for policy-makers in addressing the linkages between migration, health and human rights. It recognizes that there is limited data available and thus does not provide a full picture. It attempts to provide a useful platform to stimulate action towards addressing migration and health in a comprehensive and human rights-sensitive way. The first section explains why we are addressing the issue of migration and health and what is meant by doing this through a human rights framework. It then explores some of the terminology used and what is known about the magnitude of, and reasons for, migration. The second section links the reasons why people migrate with the health and human rights implications of moving on the populations left behind. It focuses attention on the issue of migrating health professionals by highlighting relevant trends, financial implications and ongoing trade negotiations. The third section considers the health implications for those on the move both in the context of public health as well as in relation to the health of the individual. It considers the various ways in which migration is managed, such as detaining and screening at the border. The last section, section four, considers the health and human rights issues of migrants once in the host country. It focuses particular attention on the most vulnerable categories of migrants and highlights some of the key challenges to promoting and protecting their health. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 95 p.The migration landscape has changed quite dramatically since 1994. Exacerbated disparities between the North and South, an expanding global economy, geopolitical transformations, wars, ecological disasters, and many other occurrences, have had and continue to have a profound impact on people and on their choices to stay at home or to go abroad. Today, it is estimated that 175 million people live outside their country of birth. Some of the current trends in migration are described in Chapter 1. And, though the figure seems relatively insignificant, constituting just 3 per cent of the world’s population, the field of migration has nevertheless taken on significant importance since the ICPD. As a result, there is a growing interest from governments, organizations, civil society, the private sector and many other groups affected by migration, to look further into how the benefits of migration can be maximized, while minimizing negative effects. Chapter 2 looks into current stages of migration policy development based on regional and international initiatives to strengthen dialogue and understanding in this field. It also takes a preliminary look at the impact that such efforts are having on migration systems (policy and capacities) of countries at the national level. (excerpt)
Learning lessons from IDP resettlement: villagisation in north-west Rwanda. [Enseignements à tirer de la réintégration des personnes intérieurement déplacées : villagisation au nord-ouest du Rwanda]
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):23-25.Analysis of how the international community provided uncritical support for Rwanda's controversial villagisation policy highlights the need to improve protection for resettling IDPs, think more seriously about sustainable integration and improve inter-agency cooperation. Following the rapid return to Rwanda of over one million refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo at the end of 1996, soldiers who had been responsible for genocide launched an insurgency in northwest Rwanda. The Rwandan army used brutal tactics to fight the rebels, killing, torturing and arbitrarily detaining hundreds of civilians. Violence employed by both parties led to a humanitarian crisis and extensive internal displacement. By the end of 1998, some 630,000 people - half the population of north-west Rwanda - were displaced. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):33.An Oxfam GB initiative to improve understanding of the concerns and expectations of Liberian ex-combatants offers lessons for sustainable reintegration assistance. In preparation for working in post-conflict communities in several areas of Liberia, Oxfam GB consulted a sample of civilians, displaced persons and current and ex-combatants (using this category in its broadest sense to include anyone associated with the fighting factions - including porters, cooks and 'wives'). Oxfam also consulted those with experience of providing services to ex-combatants during a previous disarmament process in 1996-97. Focus group and individual interviews identified local preconditions for sustainable return. All those interviewed said they would not want to return home with their families unless combatants were disarmed. They also called for the deployment of UN soldiers in villages of return, reintegration packages, shelter reconstruction materials, free and fair elections and education opportunities. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):26-27.The Burundi government and the international community have failed to recognise the scale of the problems to be overcome in order to ensure the sustainable return and resettlement of refugees and IDPs. Since the assassination in 1993 of Burundi's first democratically elected leader it is estimated that 300,000 Burundians have died as a result of conflict between the government and Hutu rebel groups seeking to put an end to the political dominance of the Tutsi minority. One in seven Burundians has been forced to leave home. Some 800,000 fled abroad, primarily to Tanzania. Many others, predominantly Hutus, were forcibly displaced ('regrouped', according to the language of social engineering employed by the Tutsi-dominated government) into squalid camps. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):34-36.Afghanistan has developed a national IDP plan but, without resources, is failing to assist those who comprise three-quarters of the country's remaining IDP population - the Kuchi nomads. In early 2004 it seemed that ethnic-based persecution and drought - the two main drivers of internal displacement in Afghanistan - had abated. Due to significant levels of return (and a stricter redefinition of what makes somebody an IDP rather than an economic migrant) an internally displaced population that had peaked at over one million in 2001 had been reduced to under 200,000. However, finding solutions for the remaining displaced population is fraught with complex obstacles. As the attention of the international community moves away from humanitarian assistance to development, the needs of IDPs are no longer a priority. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):30-32.An evaluation of recent UNICEF support to child disarmament demobilization and reintegration (DDR) in southern Sudan analyses the impact of different ways of addressing demobilization, care, return and reintegration of children formerly associated with the lighting forces' (CAFF). International child protection agencies used to plan the return and reintegration of CAFF separately from other was-affected and vulnerable children and youth. Increasingly, such planning trends to be merged within a broader framework for a range of vulnerable children and youth. In 2001-2003 some 20,000 children were removed in two phases from the armed forces of the main southern Sudanese rebel groups, the Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudan People's Democratic Front (SPDF). During the UNICEF-managed first phase, 3,551 children were demobilised from northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and evacuated to Rumbek where they remained in eight transit centres for six months before being returned to their homes. Responsibility for the second phase was transferred to the SPLA and SPDF. Approximately 16,500 children were locally demobilised and reunited with their families without the use of interim care or provision of individual reintegration packages. The relative success of the second phase demonstrated that a decentralized approach to demobilisation, undertaken simultaneously in many locations and using local staff who had received only essential training, could be made to work - and without recourse to interim care. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):39-41.By the end of 2001, an estimated 1.3 million people were displaced in 14 of Indonesia's 28 provinces, mainly as a result of a wave of conflicts that erupted or intensified following the 1997 financial crisis and the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998. The eruption of these conflicts was linked to the more general conditions of political instability and change in the post-Suharto years and the initiation of a vast process of political reform and decentralisation. Conflicts in Indonesia have been distinctly regional, with their own particular dynamics. Social conflict crystallised along religious lines in the Maluku provinces and Central Sulawesi. Ethnic conflict between indigenous Dayaks, Madurese migrants and Malays erupted in West and Central Kalimantan. The long- standing struggle with the militant separatist movement in Aceh also intensified. The overall caseload of displaced persons additionally includes East Timorese whose numbers, at their peak, reached 290,000 people. Once East Timor seceded from Indonesia, these people became internationally recognised as refugees, although Indonesia regards them as Indonesian citizens eligible for ressettlement in Indonesia. Since 2001, the level of violent conflict across the country has reduced significantly. Positive developments in most areas have created conditions conducive for addressing the IDP situation. However, recent episodes of violence in Maluku and Central Sulawesi demonstrate that significant risks remain and that there is potential for new displacement. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2003 Dec 13; 362(9400):2019-2020.On Dec 17, 2003, on the eve of International Migrants Day, WHO1 are publishing a report on the health of migrants and human rights that emphasises the need for public health interventions to be done within a human rights framework. On Oct 17, 2003, after a trial lasting 7·5 years, Irene Fernandez, a prominent activist for the rights of migrant workers and people infected with HIV/AIDS, was sentenced to 12 months in prison for reporting on harsh conditions and abuse in migrant detention centres in Malaysia.2 These two events highlight the gap between, on the one hand, international publichealth policies and programmes and on the other, migrants and the people who work with them. In this article, we review the WHO report from the perspective of Asian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). We highlight the need to address health and migration from a humanrights based public-health perspective, and discuss the challenges in integrating migrant voices with the development of national and regional health agendas. (excerpt)
Violence Watch. 2002 Oct-Nov; 4(4):1, 4.Children remain the instruments of positive change and development. According to Javier Peres du Cuellar former Secretary General of the United Nations, “the way a society treats children reflects not only its qualities of compassion and protective caring, but also its sense of injustice, its commitment to the future and its urge to enhance the human condition for coming generations.” Thus, the recent rejection of the Child Rights Bill by the Federal House of Representatives, is not only worrisome in that it is an outright denial of the existence abuse and exploitation in Nigeria, but also an irony it is happening in a democracy. It is indicative of the level of our development/growth as a nation in promoting the rights of disadvantaged groups. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Aug. , 29 p. (Angola Vol. 15, No. 16(A))This short report is based on an investigation by Human Rights Watch conducted in March and April 2003. Our researchers interviewed over fifty internally displaced persons, refugees, and former combatants in the transit centers and the camps of Bengo, Bengo II and Kituma in the province of Uíge and Cazombo in the province of Moxico. Human Rights Watch researchers conducted twenty-one interviews with concerned U.N. agencies, NGOs and other organizations, including the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the U.N. Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), Oxfam-GB, GOAL, African Humanitarian Aid (AHA), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-Spain, MSF-Belgium, Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), Lutheran World Federation (LWF), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Trocaire, Associação Justiça, Paz e Democracia (AJPD), Liga da Mulher Angolana (LIMA) and Mulheres, Paz e Desenvolvimento. Human Rights Watch researchers also interviewed Angolan central government officials and police, and conducted six interviews with local Angolan authorities in three provinces. Where necessary, the names of those interviewed are withheld or changed in this short report to protect their confidentiality. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2003 Jul 5; 362(9377):72-74.The wars in Afghanistan in 2002 and Iraq in 2003 have focused the world’s attention and siphoned much funding away from other humanitarian crises. Emergencies such as those in Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and southern Sudan are equally or more serious in respect of human suffering and lives lost. Governments’ provision of aid to Afghanistan and Iraq, irrespective of the motives underlying it, is laudable and indicates that with sufficient political will there are enough resources to assist in refugee situations. However, in 2002, many refugee programmes, especially in Africa, were forced to cut up to a third of their budgets, with serious consequences in their capacity to provide basic lifesaving services. Further cuts are likely for 2003. These tragedies are on a second- tier in terms of political or media attention and funding. However, a third tier of protracted refugee and internally displaced person (IDP) situations receives even less attention. Consequently, such situations are chronically underfunded and often have little hope of resolution in the near future. It is difficult to quantify the health, human rights, and economic consequences for these forgotten refugees. In this report, we consider a few of these populations and call on the international community to address them properly and equitably. (excerpt)
Monday Developments. 2002 Jun 24; 20(11):12.At a Forum workshop sponsored by the InterAction Disaster Response Committee, UN official Kofi Asomani stated that protection remains the area in which the international community's response to the growing global crisis of internal displacement remains weakest. Asomani, who heads the Internal Displacement Unit in the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, criticized the performance of the international system. He spoke about the constraints imposed by the small size and resource limitations of the unit, as well as its lack of authority over the operational UN agencies. Although nongovernmental organization representatives at the session appeared willing to allow more time for the new unit to deliver improvements in protection and assistance for internally displaced persons, several also proposed alternative structures to address the crisis.
Delegates' guide to recent publications for the International Conference on Population and Development.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 1994. , 75 p.The chapters of this listing of recent publications correspond to the chapters in the Draft Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Thus, publications are grouped under the headings: 1) interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; 2) gender equality, equity, and empowerment of women; 3) the family and its roles, composition, and structure; 4) population growth and structure; 5) reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning; 6) health, morbidity, and mortality; 7) population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; 8) international migration; 9) population, development, and education; 10) technology, research, and development; 11) national action; 12) international cooperation; and 13) partnership with the nongovernmental sector. There are no entries that correspond to the Programme of Action chapters which present the Preamble, Principles, or Follow-up to the Conference. More than 40 organizations listed publications in this guide and agreed to provide copies free of charge to official ICPD delegates as long as supplies last. A full list of organization names, contact persons, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers is also given.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . ix, 78 p.The UN Population Fund, in cooperation with the Government of Ecuador, initiated a programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) exercise in July-August 1989. The results are presented in sections such as national population policy, institutional structure, environment, women, research and training, education, communication, health nongovernmental organizations, and outside technical cooperation, each shown in the format issue, objective(s), and strategy. The Ecuadoran government views the growth rate of 2.8% as manageable, and has a qualitative population policy stated as political goals, with an addendum that addresses a few issues such as women in development. Adequate quantitative and focused data on population and development are lacking. Similarly, national, public, and private institutions are not coordinated and would benefit by regular meetings and information networks. Systematic integration of population and development must begin with policy formulation, planning, and research on rural and urban growth and migration. Health services, now emphasizing individual curative care, must be targeted to women, adolescents, and children, by integrating comprehensive family planning and primary health care. Poor performance of prior maternal-child health/family planning programs must be improved. Suggested strategies include building institutions, improving the information system, dispelling myths about contraceptive methods, informing people about the relationship between family planning and health, and broadening population education. There is potential for population education in literacy and informal education programs for workers and women, and there is a need for enlightenment of journalists and media communicators about population and migration issues. Efforts for improvement of women's lives are nonfocused and fragmented: information on these projects must be systematized, and a policy on women should be consolidated.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. vi, 199 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/118)This global review and inventory of population policies in 1991 is a machine readable database which is available on diskette. Current data on 174 countries are described. Data are based on the Population Policy Data Bank. Policy information is available on the government's view on population growth and the type of intervention to modify fertility level, acceptable mortality level, internal limits to contraceptive access and policy on use of modern contraceptives, government's view and policy and migration/spatial distribution levels, view and policy on international migration and emigration, and the agency responsible for population formulation or coordination of policy. General topics are identified questions and responses follow, i.e., "government's view on population growth" is for Bolivia "too low." The diskettes contain policy information plus statistical data on current and projected population to 2025, the crude birth and death rate, average growth rate, total fertility rate, life expectancy, dependent population, urban population, foreign-born population, and development level. Information is also available on whether the country responded to each of the 6 inquiries, on the UN regional commission code, on the subregion code, and on the full UN Statistical Office country name. A summary description of the variables in the database is included in the annex as well as a detailed description of variables and their codes. The cost of the diskette is US$50 and an order from is provided.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population projections: methodology of the United Nations. Papers of the United Nations Ad Hoc Expert Group on Demographic Projections, United Nations Headquarters, 16-19 November 1981. New York, United Nations, 1984. 4-6. (Population Studies No. 83 ST/ESA/SER.A/83)These recommendations refer specifically to the work of the Population Division of the UN and the regional commissions and more generally to the work of the specialized agenices, which prepare projections of labor force and school enroolment. The current recommendations may be regarded as updating an earlier detailed set that was issued by a similar group of experts who convened in New York in November 1977. The recommendations cover general considerations, sources and assumptions, evaluation of projections and their uses, and internal migration and urbanization. The Population Division should consider the question of an optimal time schedule for publishing new estimates and projections in order to avoid unduly long intervals between publications and intervals so short as to cause confusion. The UN Secretariat has an important role in pursuing work on methodology of projections and making it available to demographers in the developing countries. Unique problems of demographic projection exist for those countries with particularly small populations. It is proposed that the Population Division prepare special tabulations, whenever possible, giving the estimated age and sex distribution for these countries. Future publications of population projections prepared by the Population Division should indicate the major data sources on which the projections are based and note if the data were adjusted before inclusion. In addition, some grading of the quality of the base data should be presented. For the UN set of national and international population projections, a more comprehensive system of establishing assumptions about the future trends of fertility is needed. The Secretariat needs to focus more attention on the evaluation of its population projections. UN publications of projections should report on the main errors in recent past projections with respect to estimates of baseline levels and trends and provide some evaluation of the quality of the current estimates. It is recommended that the UN encourage countries to establish a standard definition of urban which would be used for international comparisons but generally not replace current national definitions. The Secretariat should review the techniques currently used to project urban-rural and city populations and search for methodologies appropriate to the level of urbanization and the quality of data which would improve the accuracy of the projections. The Division should regularly produce long range population projections for the world and major countries and should continue and expand its household estimates and projection series, which provides information essential to government administrators and planning agencies, businesses, and researchers in all countries.
Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
In: The Population Debate: Dimensions and Perspectives, Vol. I. N.Y., U.N., 1975, pp. 3-44. (Population Studies, No. 57)Add to my documents.
A charade of concern: the abandonment of Colombia's forcibly displaced. [Falsa inquietud: el abandono de los colombianos desplazados por la fuerza]
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 1999 May. 24 p.The armed conflict in Colombia has forced more than 1.5 million Colombian citizens to flee their homes and communities. Caught in a nightmare of violent conflict with no prospects for reconstructing their former lives, hundreds of thousands of mostly rural peasants have found no option but to join the ranks of the internally displaced. It is noted that despite the extraordinary dimensions of the displacement phenomenon, the issue has remained a silent crisis. During November 29-December 10, 1998, the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children sent a delegation to Colombia to assess the conditions of women, children and adolescents uprooted by war and violence. The objectives of the delegation were to: 1) report on the scale of the displacement crisis; 2) determine to what extent the specific needs of women and children were being addressed by the government and international humanitarian relief; and 3) raise awareness among policymakers and among donor agencies of the status, rights and needs of women and children. Overall, the delegation found evidence of a seriously deprived displaced population which receives alarmingly low levels of humanitarian support and only minimal recognition of their plight from national and international agencies and governments. Thus, this paper also provides recommendations for ameliorating this crisis.
In: Migration, urbanization, and development: new directions and issues, edited by Richard E. Bilsborrow. Norwell, Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. 1-56.Data from this book are based on extensive revisions of papers presented at the UNFPA-sponsored Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries: Implications for Habitat II. The meeting brought together a small number of scholars from around the world to consider the interrelationships between migration, urbanization, and development. In this book, Part A is organized into three broad topics: 1) definitions and methodology concerning internal migration; 2) theoretical approaches to internal migration and empirical estimation; and 3) urbanization. Part B explores the theoretical approaches and empirical estimation issues at either the macro- or microlevel. Some of the issues cited include household survival theory, societal context of individual and household migration decisions, policy-relevant contextual variables and aggregation problem. Finally, Part C reviews the papers contained in the book, highlighting salient points and noting some desirable extensions of the research they reflect. Major topics specified contain patterns of migration and urbanization; determinants of internal organization and linkages with economic growth; consequences of migration; and migration, urbanization capacity, and the world economy.