Your search found 32 Results

  1. 1

    Talking points.

    de La Sabliere JM

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 4 p.

    Unfortunately, this is extremely well documented in countries in conflict. Many of the reports submitted to the Security Council include mention of the use of rape as a weapon of war. Recently, a report of the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) on the situation of human rights in Ituri provided information on this problem which is as specific as it is frightening. But, paradoxically, in countries which are not in conflict, the issue of violence against women is often neglected, where it is not concealed. But the private sphere cannot be an area where rights do not apply. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Making the linkages: HIV / AIDS and sexual and reproductive rights.

    Ahumada C; Gonzalez Galeano A; Ribadeneira N; Russo M; Villa Torres L

    Ottawa, Canada, Youth Coalition, 2006. 30 p.

    The current global generation of young people is the first in history to have lived their entire lives in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, and are disproportionately affected. Millions of children and youth have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS; thousands of others are HIV positive themselves; and many others are affected by it in a variety of ways. None of us are immune to it. In response to the pandemic, governments and international organizations have adopted a variety of responses, but the numbers show that what has been done thus far clearly is not adequate. The reality is that none of these responses, initiatives or programs will be truly successful and effective until they integrate a sexual and reproductive rights and a gender perspective. Furthermore, every initiative must include youth from the beginning to ensure that we young people, have the youth-friendly information, education, services and products that we are entitled to as our human right, in order to make informed and healthy decisions about our sexual and reproductive lives. This guide is intended to: Provide an overview of the linkages between sexual and reproductive rights and HIV/AIDS; Explain the importance of HIV/AIDS initiatives having a sexual and reproductive rights perspective, as well as a youth perspective; and Discuss ways that young people can advocate for their sexual and reproductive rights within HIV/AIDS frameworks, in their countries, regions, and globally. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Keeping the promise: an agenda for action on women and AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, [2006]. 29 p.

    AIDS is affecting women and girls in increasing numbers: globally, women comprise almost 50% of women living with HIV. Nearly 25 years into the epidemic, gender inequality and the low status of women remain two of the principal drivers of HIV. Yet current AIDS responses do not, on the whole, tackle the social, cultural and economic factors that put women at risk of HIV, and that unduly burden them with the epidemic's consequences. Women and girls have less access to education and HIV information, tend not to enjoy equality in marriage and sexual relations, and remain the primary caretakers of family and community members suffering from AIDS-related illnesses. To be more effective, AIDS responses must address the factors that continue to put women at risk. The world's governments have repeatedly declared their commitment to improve the status of women and acknowledged the linkage with HIV. In some areas, progress has been made. By and large, though, efforts have been small-scale, half-hearted and haphazard. Major opportunities to stem the global AIDS epidemic have been missed. It is time the world's leaders lived up to their promises. That's why the UNAIDS-led Global Coalition on Women and AIDS is calling for a massive scaling up of AIDS responses for women and girls. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Applied interest-group analysis in reproductive health policy [letter]

    O'Brien B; Janeja M; Gopalakrishnan A

    Lancet. 2007 Feb 3; 369(9559):368.

    We fully agree with the Viewpoint by Kent Buse and colleagues about the need for agencies working in sexual and reproductive health policy to engage in applied political analysis as part of their core activities. We would like to draw your attention to the work of the United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA). UNFPA's country office in Guatemala used a form of interest-group analysis to plan and facilitate the adoption of that country's first social development and population law in 2001. UNFPA's Strategic Planning Office, with six country offices, has introduced interest-group analysis to scan the environment and engage with key players who influence the implementation of goals agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994. The approach has been applied to issues including early marriage and gender-based violence. In short, UNFPA, as the agency primarily responsible for sexual and reproductive health policy, is doing what Buse and colleagues recommend. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Integration of the human rights of women and a gender perspective: violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Communications to and from governments.

    Erturk Y

    [Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2006 Mar 27. 82 p. (E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.1)

    At its sixty-first session, the Commission on Human Rights, in its resolution 2005/41 entitled "Elimination of violence against women", encouraged the Special Rapporteur to respond effectively to reliable information that comes before her and requested all Governments to cooperate with and assist the Special Rapporteur in the performance of her mandated tasks and duties, to supply all information requested, including with regard to implementation of her recommendations, and to respond to the Special Rapporteur's visits and communications. The present report contains, on a country-by-country basis, summaries of general and individual allegations, as well as urgent appeals transmitted to Governments between 1 January and 31 December 2005, as well as replies received during the same period. Observations made by the Special Rapporteur have also been included where applicable. Government replies received after 31 December 2005 will be included in the Special Rapporteur's next communications report. Due to restrictions of length of the report, the Special Rapporteur has been obliged to summarize the details of all correspondence sent and received. The Special Rapporteur wishes to emphasize that the omission of a particular country or territory should not be interpreted as indicating that there is no problem of violence against women in that country or territory. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Africa and globalization: marginalization and resistance.

    Gibson NC

    Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2004; 39(1-2):1-28.

    This chapter is a contribution to the ongoing debate about Africa and globalization and the interrelated issues of capitalism, marginalization, representation, and political leadership. Problematizing the discourse of Africa as "diseased" and "hapless," the World Bank's structural adjustment "cure-all" is presented as being much worse than the "disease" that preceded it. Proposing a critical ethics of globalization--which highlights the gap between globalization's miraculous, self-reflective images and the miserable conditions it creates--there is an attempt to uncover agents of change on the African continent. Social movements such as those fighting for water and electricity in Soweto, for land in Kenya, or against environmental destruction by oil companies in the Niger delta raise questions about the viability of globalization. Often led by women, these movements not only challenge the "male deal" that defines national governments and multinational corporations, but also call for a revaluation of subsistence economies and local democratic polities as alternatives to globalization. In short, this chapter offers important conceptual, as well as practical, challenges to globalization, indeed to the very nature of politics itself. (author's)
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  7. 7

    First regional meeting in Honduras.

    Groennings S

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Oct; 3(4):3-4.

    The Alliance held its first Regional Seminar in Central America July 2-5,1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. This was the first meeting held within the framework of the two- year Alliance program in Latin America supported by the Commission of the European Union. The theme was "Civil- Military Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean." (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Military networks for surveillance of communicable diseases.

    D'Amelio R; Heymann D

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Jul; 3(3):6-7.

    This article reviews the complementary initiatives between the Civil-Military Alliance to Combat HIV & AIDS and the Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control of the World Health Organization in Geneva. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Malawi: regional policy workshop on AIDS prevention in a civil-military environment.

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1996 Aug; 2(3):3-4.

    This article presents excerpts from a speech by Malawi’s First Vice President and Minister of Defence, the Right Honourable Justin C. Malewezi at the opening address to the policy workshop.
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  10. 10

    Alliance: the issues at stake.

    Miller N

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1995 Jan; 1(1):2.

    The Alliance is concerned with control and prevention of HIV and AIDS and military personnel, their families and their communities. Issues of special concern also fall into three broad sectors: those concerning military to military relations, those concerning civil-military relations, and those concerning peacekeeping issues. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    The right to health: from the margins to the mainstream.

    Hunt P

    Lancet. 2002 Dec 7; 360(9348):1878.

    In September, I was appointed special rapporteur. Although nominated by New Zealand, I serve in my personal capacity as an independent expert. The rapporteur’s mandate is vast and vague: to gather right-to-health information from all sources, to identify areas of cooperation, to report on the status of the right to health throughout the world, and to make policy and legislative recommendations. I am expected to undertake two country missions every year. All this on a part-time basis—and supported by one UN researcher. With my first report due in the New Year, I am consulting with states, civil society organisations, UN specialised agencies, and international financial institutions, such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). The basic challenge is to promote and protect the international right to health. This requires different approaches for different constituencies. Whereas one approach might assist a developing state, a different approach may be needed for a developed state. What might resonate with an association of health professionals might not work with the World Bank and IMF. And then there is the important question of how to approach the private sector. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    [Bokk Ndeye project: Chickens against poverty] Projet "Bokk Ndeye". Des poulets contre la pauvrete.

    Wida. 1997 Nov; (13):20.

    In 1996, UNIFEM’s regional office financed an aviculture support project to benefit Pikine’s “Bokk Ndèye” women’s group, help it increase its production of plump chickens, and diversify its activities to include the raising of egg-laying hens. The short-term goal was to strengthen the group’s avicultural activities, but over the long-term, UNIFEM hoped to implement a global support strategy to promote aviculture as a sector in which women from outlying neighborhoods do not hesitate to invest to earn income. However, the midterm project evaluation, conducted at the end of 1996, revealed that Bokk Ndèye suffered organizational problems related to production and management, particularly regarding chicken distribution and commercialization. To address these problems, a day of reflection was organized by UNIFEM in collaboration with the African Center of Female Entrepreneurs (CAEF) on March 13, 1997, at Dakar’s Training and Improvement Center, to enhance the performance of the women’s operations. Approximately 20 Pikine women’s groups involved in aviculture participated. These women, who convened together for the first time, were able to discuss their problems and jointly consider strategic directions toward a unified support approach UNIFEM can propose to interested parties. A network encompassing the body of Pikine’s women’s groups involved in aviculture was developed from this 1-day conference. This network will exist to foster true avicultural entrepreneurship among women’s groups.
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  13. 13

    [Mantoulaye Guene: perseverance and dynamism rewarded] Gie "Mantoulaye Guene". La perseverance et le dynamisme recompenses.

    Traore AM

    Wida. 1997 Nov; (13):18-9.

    Created in 1987, in honor of the former Minister of Women’s Status, the “Mantoulaye Guène” group quickly made a name for itself through its successful seafood processing operations. In 1996, the group processed 4298 tons of seafood for a commercial value totaling 326,783,800 francs CFA. This success is due largely to the round-the-clock efforts of women working during the fishing season. In 1997, the group was awarded the Head of State’s Grand Prize for women’s promotion in Senegal in recognition of its activities processing fish, fruit, and vegetables. Worth 5 million francs CFA, this award encourages the group’s efforts, while inviting its participants to persevere in their efforts supporting the country’s economic and social development. With this prize, all of Kayar, as well as its partners like UNIFEM, feel honored. The project aims to valorize local production while increasing the year-round availability of food stocks; increasing women’s incomes by creating smallholders to process fruit, vegetables, and seafood; strengthening women’s organizational capacity through proper training; and raising responsibility to better commercialize and sustain accomplishments. This project involved the towns of Kayar, Fass Boye, and Keur Mousseu.
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  14. 14

    Campaigners for breast feeding claim partial victory.

    Brown P

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2001 Jan 27; 322(7280):191.

    Campaigners for breast-feeding claimed a partial victory when the executive board of WHO approved a resolution urging governments to tighten their controls on the marketing tactics of the manufacturers of baby milk. The resolution, which was agreed upon after hours of debate at the annual board meeting in Geneva, will become official WHO policy if the organization's member states adopt it at the next World Health Assembly in May. Moreover, campaigners expressed fear that the vote might be postponed until 2002. The International Baby Food Action Network had argued that any delay would open the door to more aggressive labeling and marketing of infant foods and a possible weakening of the standards set by the international food policy body, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which meets in June 2001. The resolution aims to build a wide overall framework for better infant nutrition, ranging from workplace policies concerning nursing mothers to the prevention of HIV infection.
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  15. 15

    Transnational movements and world politics: the international women's health movement and population policy [abstract]

    Higer AJ


    This dissertation seeks to explain the emergence of the international women's health movement (IWHM), its opposition to international population control policies, and its effects on the population agendas of major international institutions. To do so, it describes the rise of the IWHM, its strategies and tactics over the last 2 decades, and what changes its efforts have brought about in the agendas of three international institutions: the Population Council, the US Agency for International Development, and the decennial UN population conferences. Although much has been written recently about the ways in which the international environmental and right-to-life movements have affected international population policy, no one has looked carefully at what role the international women's movement has played. I argue that the IWHM played a significant role in engendering a conceptual shift in the debate on international population policy, added new issues to institutional agendas, and reshaped the consciousness of population planners. I show that it has accomplished these tasks by organizing outside traditional policy channels over the past 2 decades, and by more recent direct engagement in the policy process. The research methods are interpretative and include interviews with women's health advocates and members of population organizations and careful scrutiny of documents, such as speeches, position papers, agency publications, annual reports, budgets, conference proceedings, and media coverage. By assessing the political influence of the women's health movement in this policy area, this dissertation provides insight into the ways in which transnational movements act upon, shape, and possibly limit the conduct of more traditional actors in the international system. It also sheds light on the conditions under which international institutions respond to pressure from outside constituencies. (full text)
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  16. 16

    Country watch: Ghana.

    Nerquaye-Tetteh J

    SEXUAL HEALTH EXCHANGE. 1998; (3):2-4.

    Many men in Ghanaian society have the final say in couples on whether or not to use contraception, the type of contraceptive to use, how many children to have, and when to have them. However, despite their important roles in families and family planning decision-making, men have long been overlooked by family planning programs. Not including and accommodating men in family planning programs impedes men's access to family planning services and limits women's ability to make full use of available reproductive health services. Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) field workers organized male workers of the Prestea Oil Palm Plantation in the western region of Ghana into a "daddies' club" and provided them with indoor recreational games as an entry point for discussions of family planning and other reproductive health issues. In 1980, PPAG created the Male Involvement in Family Planning project to increase male participation in family planning and other reproductive health issues. The project now covers 7 of the country's 10 regions and by the end of 1997, operated through 19 daddies' clubs, 24 industrial centers, 9 garage associations, 13 drivers' unions, 3 national vocational training institutes, 5 artisan's groups, 32 functional literacy facilitators, 4 young men's clubs, and an agricultural college. Members' recreational activities have generated discussions on reproductive health issues.
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  17. 17

    Experiences in policy development on breastfeeding and LAM: panel presentations. International policy.

    Cooney KA

    In: Bellagio and beyond: breastfeeding and LAM in reproductive health. End of project conference of the Breastfeeding and MCH Division, Institute for Reproductive Health, a WHO Collaborating Center on Breastfeeding, May 13-16, 1997. Conference summary and papers, edited by Kristin A. Cooney, Sheerin R. Nahmias. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, Institute for Reproductive Health], 1997. [2] p.. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. DPE-3061-A-00-1029-00)

    The Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH) has been involved in policy change and development at all levels. On the international level, there have been the following major initiatives during the 1990s: the Innocenti Policy Makers Meeting, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and the Women's Conference in Beijing. IRH has also worked with the International Federation for Family Life Promotion, an organization whose policies and norms have international implications. Actions undertaken by the IRH to influence the development of policy at the Beijing Conference and as it would be contained in the ICPD's program of action are described. IRH efforts proved successful, with the final ICPD document including 12 references to breastfeeding rather than the one reference to child survival originally. Eight references were made to breastfeeding in the final Beijing document.
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  18. 18

    Household and intrahousehold impact of the Grameen Bank and similar targeted credit programs in Bangladesh.

    Pitt MM; Khandker SR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1996. vii, 109 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 320)

    This paper is one of several World Bank papers examining the sustainability and household and intrahousehold impact of credit programs for the poor in Bangladesh. The aim of the paper is to develop a method for estimating the costs and benefits of group-based credit programs and to determine under what conditions group-based credit programs are sustainable. Household outcome measures include school enrollment of boys and girls, the labor supply of women and men, the asset holdings of women, recent fertility and contraceptive use, consumption, and the anthropometric status of children. Findings indicate that credit to women was more likely to influence 7 out of 8 outcome behaviors than credit to men (3 out of 8). Three credit programs are evaluated: Grameen Bank, the BRAC, and the BRDB's RD-12. The methods include a comparison of ordinary least squares and complex econometric methods using a quasi-experimental design. The comparison served to highlight the importance of accounting for endogeneity in evaluating credit programs in order to avoid mistaken conclusions drawn from "naive" estimates. Findings indicate that credit was a significant determinant of household behavior. Credit in the Grameen Bank program had the greatest positive impact on outcomes associated with household wealth and women's status. Grameen Bank's credit to women had the largest impact on girls' schooling, women's labor supply, and total household expenditure. Grameen Bank's credit to men had the largest impact on fertility. Women's credit from the BRBD had the largest impact on boys' schooling and the value of women's assets. Credit did not impact on the anthropometric status of children. The effect of credit programs on contraceptive use was measured differently in the two methods. Also, the "naive" method underestimated the effect on increasing total household expenditure. Policy should consider that the credit program empowered women, decreased poverty, and had beneficial effects from credit given to men.
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  19. 19

    A return to reason; U.S. international population policy.

    Fornos W; Burdett H

    Washington, D.C., Population Institute, 1993. 15 p. (Toward the 21st Century No. 4)

    The 1980s were poor years in the fight against rapid world population growth. Although the technology, experience, and research needed to reduce fertility were available, religious fundamentalism, the Reagan and Bush administrations in the US, and a weak global economy near the end of the decade severely crippled efforts to achieve stable populations around the world. The fundamentalist opposition to abortion drove Reagan and Bush to reverse the long-standing commitment of the US to international population and family planning assistance. Reagan arranged in 1984 for the US to lose its position of lead donor to the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). US government funds were then prohibited from being used by nongovernmental organizations which provide abortion services to overseas clients under the "Mexico City policy." The Kemp amendment and China and the UNFPA are discussed as elements of this low point of America's role in providing international family planning services. Reagan's international policy ran counter to the US policy implemented over the previous two decades. Bush continued the Mexico city policy and the funding boycott against the UNFPA. It was not until the Democratic administration of President Bill Clinton that a rational and enlightened approach to population growth was restored to US international policy. Clinton overturned the Mexico policy by executive memorandum two days after taking office. In 1993, the US Agency for International Development restored the flows of money to the UNFPA, the IPPF, and the World Health Organization human reproduction program. A record $392 million for population development assistance in 1994 was appropriated by Congress, almost all of the $400 million requested by the Clinton administration.
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  20. 20

    Schools of thought: negotiation analysis applied to interest groups active in international population policy formulation.

    Campbell MM

    [Unpublished] 1993. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1-3, 1993. 17 p.

    The international population policy arena, based on negotiation analysis theory and methodology from the literature on conflict resolutions, is examined. 5 interest groups have been identified as influential in international population policy: the population, or population-concerned, community (POP); the market-preference community (MKT); the community representing international distribution concerns (DST); women's health advocates, focusing on women's initiatives (WIN); and the Vatican (VTC). The 5 groups' interest, population issues, preferred policy instruments (PPIs), and beliefs are presented. Asymmetry among these groups is revealed. Limiting solutions to the common ground between 2 such groups addresses only one PPI of the only group whose primary interest is the subject of the policy area, while it satisfies the primary interest of the second group. The most active dialogue in the field since the Earth Summit has been between POP and WIN. There is justification for: 1) refusing to limit the population subject to WIN objectives; 2) proposing an alternate intervention point in support of WIN's concerns about insensitive family planning programs; 3) taking an inclusive or integrative approach to population policy, with WIN and DST concerns incorporated into the process; 4) disaggregating the issues by including many issues not considered by the different groups for discussion, treating some linked pairs of issues as discussion topics in addition to single issues and then reaggregating the issues found to be relevant; and 5) viewing most of the WIN objectives as appropriate subjects for human rights policy, while viewing a number of WIN objectives that are either instrumental to population concerns or responsive to WIN concerns about family planning programs as appropriate components of population policy.
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  21. 21

    The road from Rio to Cairo: toward a common agenda.

    Cohen SA

    International Family Planning Perspectives. 1993 Jun; 19(2):61-6.

    The constituents of women, population, and the environment proved to be explosive when representatives from the 3 groups came together during preparations for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which took place in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In its aftermath, feminists, population planning advocates, and environmental activists were concerned about the direction of their respective movements and the future of cooperative ventures. The key parties desire reconciliation, as time is approaching for meetings sponsored by the UN: the International Conference on Population and Development, in Cairo in 1994, and the next international women's conference, in Beijing, China, in 1995. Representatives of a wide array of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) confronted the government delegations during the final governmental preparatory committee meeting in New York just prior to UNCED. The draft of the meeting's official document, known as Agenda 21, made a compelling case for the population-environment link. The US delegation sent by the Bush Administration insisted on deleting from Agenda 21 any references to changes in behavior aimed at reducing consumption in the industrialized world. The Vatican's goal was to deemphasize the population issue in the global environmental debate and to eliminate any mention of family planning (FP). In Rio at UNCED, many prominent government delegates addressed population stabilization for sustainable development. Population planning and environmental activists insisted that rapid population growth is a critical international issue and that FP can be perceived as a social and individual good. Many feminists would prefer that the world debate about population focus less on fertility-related phenomenon and more on how population size and growth affect a particular community and lifestyle. The National Wildlife Federation observed that environmentalists must devote more attention to the consumption issue in the industrialized world.
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  22. 22

    [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern] India: amming er gammeldags, flaske er moderne.

    Uniyal M

    JOURNALEN SYKEPLEIEN. 1992 Sep 7; 80(14):21.

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper nutrition in magazines read by millions of the Indian middle class who use these products most.
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  23. 23

    Politically correct environmentalists.

    Mathews J

    WASHINGTON POST. 1992 Apr 12; C7.

    Ironically, the UN Earth Summit in Brazil will ignore the single most relevant environmental issue: Overpopulation, how many people the planet can realistically sustain. Over the next century, the current population of 5 billion people, will double and almost triple to between 9-14 billion. No matter what is accomplished environmentally in those 100 years, the 5-billion person margin will most likely make the difference between success and failure in providing most people with a reasonable standard of living. Developing and industrial countries argued over the importance of overpopulation and overconsumption, neither side wanting to admit internationally, problems they admitted domestically. Eventually, representatives of women limited population control language because they feared population control meant jeopardizing women's health, disguised genocide, or placed blame on women (the producers of babies). This small but noisy group representing women advised that the "politically correct" environmentalists should discuss health, education, and broad development issues, but this approach fails to specifically address the critical issue of family planning. Denying the importance of family planning only encourages governments to avoid an issue they are already disinclined to acknowledge, and further delays the inevitable day when the issue of "how many people can be sustained with what patterns of consumption" must be faced. While short-term goals between women and environmentalists differ, a wedge between them is wholly unnecessary because both groups share the same longterm goals. If failing to specifically address family planning and population growth, then at least the Summit has forced many to learn about issues not firmly on the international agenda.
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  24. 24

    Prostitutes spread safe sex message to combat AIDS crisis.

    Barron T

    FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1992 Jan-Feb; 2(1):15-6.

    In an effort to combat AIDS, groups of prostitutes are being formed with the intention of training the sex workers persuade their clients to use condoms. The biggest obstacles is usually the resistance by the John to wear a condom. In Cameroon a group called the Cameroon Prostitutes Theater Project travels around the country and performs skits to educate bars full of potential clients about using condoms. The programs has been very successful. The sex workers also met condoms as part of their sexual services. Some participants can sell 50 cartons of condoms a month (there are 960 condoms to a carton). They can get the condoms very cheaply through various agencies and can sell them at a high mark up. There are a total of 83 such programs in developed and developing nations. Of this total 72 are all female sex workers and 11 are all male. 36 in Africa, 26 in the Americas, and 21 in Asia. Another obstacle can be the police since prostitution is often times illegal. A WHO grant for AIDSTECH helped to get these programs started and they also often work the a countries Ministry of Health to get the police to look the other way.
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  25. 25

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Banerji D

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):25-7.

    The article on human entrapment in India by Maurice King is just another example of the dogmatic, simplistic and reckless way in which the white scholars of the North formulate their ideas. It is these people who are responsible for the opium wars, programs against Jews, and carpet bombing, defoliation, and massacres in Vietnam. King's idea os using UNICEF and the WHO to kill the non white children of the South is just another example of this kind of racist brutality. It is based only upon the written opinions of other white scholars. In 1991 King produced no data about human entrapment in India. King ignores the writing of non whites like Ashish Bose who presided over the International Population Conference in 1989. Other mistakes that King makes include a failure to understand the applications of immunization (EPI) and oral rehydration programs (ORT). The EPI was implemented without ever taking baseline data, so that its effectiveness is impossible to determine with any accuracy. And nowhere in the world has ORT worked as well as UNICEF claimed it would. Further proof that King advocates genocide is his labeling of the insecticide-impregnated bednets as a dangerous technology in increasing entrapment. King fails to acknowledge the overwhelming influence of white consultants on the policies and planning strategies of family planning programs in India. Their list of failures includes: the clinic and extension approach, popularization of the IUD, mass communication, target orientation, sterilization camps, and giving primacy to generalists administrators. They should be held accountable for the 406 million people added to the base population between 1961-91 It should also be noted that India had the ability absorb this large number people while still maintaining a democratic structure, gather a substantial buffer stock of food grains, consistently increasing its per capita income while decreasing its infant mortality and crude death rates, increase its life expectancy at birth and improve the level of literacy, especially for females.
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