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  1. 1

    Plasmodium falciparum containment strategy.

    Agrawal VK

    MJAFI. Medical Journal Armed Froces India. 2008; 64(1):57-60.

    World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 1.7-2.5 million deaths and 300-500 million cases of malaria each year globally. As an initiative WHO has announced Roll Back Malaria (RBM) programme aimed at 50% reduction in deaths due to malaria by 2010. The RBM strategy recommends combination approach with prevention, care, creating sustainable demand for insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and efficacious antimalarials in order to achieve sustainable malaria control. Malaria control in India has travelled a long way from National Malaria Control Programme launched in 1953 to National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme in 2003. In India, the malaria eradication concept was based on indoor residual spraying to interrupt transmission and mop up cases by vigilance. This programme was successful in reducing the malaria cases from 75 million in 1953 to 2 million but subsequently resulted in vector and parasite resistance as well as increase in P falciparum from 30-48%. In view of rapidly growing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to conventional monotherapies and its spread in newer areas, the programme was modified with inclusion of RBM interventions and revision of treatment guidelines for malaria. Early case detection and prompt treatment, selective vector control, promotion of personal protective measures including ITNs and information, education, communication to achieve wider community participation will be the key interventions in the revised programme. (author's)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    DDT: a polluted debate in malaria control.

    Schapira A

    Lancet. 2006 Dec 16; 368(9553):2111-2113.

    A recent press statement from WHO about dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and indoor residual spraying for malaria control caused a considerable stir, despite the fact that, in terms of policy, it merely reiterated WHO's endorsement of DDT as a useful insecticide for malaria control, albeit in a highly promotional way. In this recurring debate, arguments for and against DDT, as before, have been heated and mainly based on considerations far removed from the realities of malaria control. One group that criticised the WHO statement has inferred that my resignation from WHO's Global Malaria Programme in September, 2006, was related to my opposition to its promotion of DDT. This assumption is erroneous. For many years, WHO's malaria-control professionals have fought hard against pressure from various sides to ensure access in malaria-endemic countries to DDT. Hopefully, the statement now issued by the Global Malaria Programme will put an end to this debate, so that all countries that need DDT for malaria control will have unfettered access to use it in accordance with WHO guidelines and with the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, if they are signatories to the latter. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The significance of insecticide-resistant strains.

    Busvine JR

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1956; 15:389-401.

    The author discusses the meaning of insecticide resistance and the manner in which it should be detected and measure. From some recent data he gives a number of examples of measurements of resistance in mosquitos of different species in various areas. He then proceeds to a speculative discussion on the way in which insecticide resistance arises, whether it can be prevented and overcome, its importance in the past and at present, and finally its future prospects. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Changing strategy in malaria control.

    Pampana EJ

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1954; 11:513-520.

    Residual-insecticide spraying methods may lead to the eradication of malaria from a country or from an area of it, and therefore to the possibility that the spraying campaign may eventually be discontinued. This is the final target to be aimed at in planning national malaria-control campaigns. As it is now known that some anopheline vector species may develop resistance to insecticides, a plea is made that control programmes should be planned to cover such large areas and with such criteria of efficiency as to eradicate malaria and to enable the campaign to be discontinued before resistance may have developed. (author's)
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