Your search found 70 Results

  1. 1

    Country Immunization Information System Assessments - Kenya, 2015 and Ghana, 2016.

    Scott C; Clarke KEN; Grevendonk J; Dolan SB; Ahmed HO; Kamau P; Ademba PA; Osadebe L; Bonsu G; Opare J; Diamenu S; Amenuvegbe G; Quaye P; Osei-Sarpong F; Abotsi F; Ankrah JD; MacNeil A

    MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2017 Nov 10; 66(44):1226-1229.

    The collection, analysis, and use of data to measure and improve immunization program performance are priorities for the World Health Organization (WHO), global partners, and national immunization programs (NIPs). High quality data are essential for evidence-based decision-making to support successful NIPs. Consistent recording and reporting practices, optimal access to and use of health information systems, and rigorous interpretation and use of data for decision-making are characteristics of high-quality immunization information systems. In 2015 and 2016, immunization information system assessments (IISAs) were conducted in Kenya and Ghana using a new WHO and CDC assessment methodology designed to identify root causes of immunization data quality problems and facilitate development of plans for improvement. Data quality challenges common to both countries included low confidence in facility-level target population data (Kenya = 50%, Ghana = 53%) and poor data concordance between child registers and facility tally sheets (Kenya = 0%, Ghana = 3%). In Kenya, systemic challenges included limited supportive supervision and lack of resources to access electronic reporting systems; in Ghana, challenges included a poorly defined subdistrict administrative level. Data quality improvement plans (DQIPs) based on assessment findings are being implemented in both countries. IISAs can help countries identify and address root causes of poor immunization data to provide a stronger evidence base for future investments in immunization programs.
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  2. 2

    Guidelines for integrating gender into an M&E framework and system assessment.

    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Carolina Population Center. MEASURE Evaluation

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2016 May. [37] p. (TR-16-128; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This document offers concrete guidance on how organizations can comprehensively and explicitly integrate gender in their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems. It describes how to make each component of a functioning M&E system gender-sensitive and provides guidance on how to assess an M&E system to ensure that gender is fully integrated throughout the system for appropriate collection, compilation, analysis, dissemination, and use of gender data for decision making. This document outlines why it is important to apply a gender lens to M&E processes and structures and contextualizes gender in an M&E system. It then walks you through how to think about gender and address it in each of the components of an M&E system. This guide includes examples of gender-specific assessment questions that can be integrated in an M&E system assessment and provides guidance on how to plan and conduct an M&E system assessment. This guidance document is intended for national health program and M&E managers, subnational health program staff with M&E responsibilities, M&E officers from different agencies or organizations, and development partners who provide M&E support to national and subnational M&E systems.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group.

    Alkema L; Chou D; Hogan D; Zhang S; Moller AB; Gemmill A; Fat DM; Boerma T; Temmerman M; Mathers C; Say L

    Lancet. 2016 Jan 30; 387(10017):462-74.

    BACKGROUND: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. We estimated levels and trends in maternal mortality for 183 countries to assess progress made. Based on MMR estimates for 2015, we constructed projections to show the requirements for the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of less than 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths globally by 2030. METHODS: We updated the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group (MMEIG) database with more than 200 additional records (vital statistics from civil registration systems, surveys, studies, or reports). We generated estimates of maternal mortality and related indicators with 80% uncertainty intervals (UIs) using a Bayesian model. The model combines the rate of change implied by a multilevel regression model with a time-series model to capture data-driven changes in country-specific MMRs, and includes a data model to adjust for systematic and random errors associated with different data sources. RESULTS: We had data for 171 of 183 countries. The global MMR fell from 385 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (80% UI 359-427) in 1990, to 216 (207-249) in 2015, corresponding to a relative decline of 43.9% (34.0-48.7), with 303,000 (291,000-349,000) maternal deaths worldwide in 2015. Regional progress in reducing the MMR since 1990 ranged from an annual rate of reduction of 1.8% (0.0-3.1) in the Caribbean to 5.0% (4.0-6.0) in eastern Asia. Regional MMRs for 2015 ranged from 12 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (11-14) for high-income regions to 546 (511-652) for sub-Saharan Africa. Accelerated progress will be needed to achieve the SDG goal; countries will need to reduce their MMRs at an annual rate of reduction of at least 7.5%. INTERPRETATION: Despite global progress in reducing maternal mortality, immediate action is needed to meet the ambitious SDG 2030 target, and ultimately eliminate preventable maternal mortality. Although the rates of reduction that are needed to achieve country-specific SDG targets are ambitious for most high mortality countries, countries that made a concerted effort to reduce maternal mortality between 2000 and 2010 provide inspiration and guidance on how to accomplish the acceleration necessary to substantially reduce preventable maternal deaths. FUNDING: National University of Singapore, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, USAID, and the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Copyright (c) 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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  4. 4

    Sustainable development indicators: The last missing piece of the 2030 agenda.

    Worley H

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2016 Mar. [6] p.

    The "last missing piece" to complete the architecture of the 2030 sustainable development agenda is to adopt a comprehensive framework of progress indicators to guide countries’ efforts to reach the Goals by 2030. This article explains the challenges of collecting the indicator data.
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  5. 5

    The roadmap for health measurement and accountability.

    World Bank; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Washington, D,.C.], World Bank, 2015 Jun. [34] p.

    The Roadmap articulates a shared strategic approach to support effective measurement and accountability systems for a country’s health programs. The Roadmap outlines smart investments that countries can adopt to strengthen basic measurement systems and to align partners and donors around common priorities. It offers a platform for development partners, technical experts, implementers, civil society organizations, and decision makers to work together for health measurement in the post-2015 era. Using inputs and technical papers developed by experts from international and national institutions, the Roadmap was completed following a public consultation that received extensive contributions from a wide number of agencies and individuals from across the globe. (Excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity. Illustrations of fundamental concepts.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014. [16] p. (WHO/FWC/GER/2014.1)

    This booklet communicates fundamental concepts about the importance of health inequality monitoring, using text, figures, maps and videos. Following a brief summary of main messages, four general principles pertaining to health inequalities are highlighted: 1. Health inequalities are widespread; 2. Health inequality is multidimensional; 3. Benchmarking puts changes in inequality in context; and 4.Health inequalities inform policy. Each of the four principles is accompanied by figures or maps that illustrate the concept, a question that is posed as an extension and application of the material, and a link to a video, demonstrating the use of interactive visuals to answer the question. The videos are accessible online by scanning a QR code (a URL is also provided). The next section of the booklet outlines essential steps forward for achieving health equity, including the strengthening and equity orientation of health information systems through data collection, data analysis and reporting practices. The use of visualization technologies as a tool to present data about health inequality is promoted, accompanied by a link to a video demonstrating how health inequality data can be presented interactively. Finally, the booklet announces the upcoming State of inequality report, and refers readers to the Health Equity Monitor homepage on the WHO Global Health Observatory.
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  7. 7

    Atlas of eHealth country profiles 2013. eHealth and innovation in women's and children's health. Based on the findings of the 2013 survey of ColA countries by the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014. [132] p.

    This atlas is based on the 2013 WHO / ITU joint survey that explored the use of eHealth for women’s and children’s health in countries targeted by the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health (CoIA). The objective of the country profiles is to describe the status in 2013 of the use of ICT for women’s and children’s health in 64 responding CoIA countries. This is a unique reference source for policy makers and others involved in planning and implementing eHealth services in countries.
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  8. 8

    eHealth and innovation in women's and children's health: A baseline review. Based on the findings of the 2013 survey of CoIA countries by the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth. Executive summary.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; International Telecommunication Union [ITU]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2014. [4] p. (WHO/HIS/KER/EHL/14.1)

    Improving the health of women and children is a global health imperative, reflected in two of the most compelling Millennium Development Goals which seek specifically to reduce maternal and infant deaths by 2015. This joint report by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), based on a 64-country survey, demonstrates -- as never before in such detail -- the vital role that information and communication technologies (ICTs) and particularly eHealth are playing today in helping achieve those targets. It demonstrates how, every day, eHealth is saving the lives of women, their babies and infants in the some of the most vulnerable populations around the world, in a wide variety of innovative ways.
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  9. 9

    Legal frameworks for eHealth. Based on the findings of the second global survey on eHealth.

    Wilson P

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2012. [89] p. (Global Observatory for eHealth Series Vol. 5)

    Given that privacy of the doctor-patient relationship is at the heart of good health care, and that the electronic health record (EHR) is at the heart of good eHealth practice, the question arises: Is privacy legislation at the heart of the EHR? The second global survey on eHealth conducted by the Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) set out to answer that question by investigating the extent to which the legal frameworks in the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) address the need to protect patient privacy in EHRs as health care systems move towards leveraging the power of EHRs to deliver safer, more efficient, and more accessible health care. (Excerpt)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Developing nutrition information systems in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Regional Technical Working Group, Nairobi

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2010 Sep; 31(3 Suppl):S272-86.

    This report integrates the results from two working group meetings that were held to familiarize country teams of eastern and southern Africa with research findings to allow countries to develop plans to further reinforce national nutrition information systems. The meetings specifically focused on: reviewing recent trends in child malnutrition in eastern and southern Africa particularly in relation to drought and HIV/AIDS; making recommendations on key technical issues related to sampling, mortality estimation, and indicators used in small-scale nutrition surveys; and making recommendations for the next steps to further develop nutrition information systems in the region.
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  11. 11

    Atlas eHealth country profiles. Based on the findings of the Second Global Survey on eHealth.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Observatory for eHealth

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011. [244] p.

    This publication presents data on the 114 WHO Member States that participated in the 2009 global survey on eHealth. Intended as a reference to the state of eHealth development in Member States, the publication highlights selected indicators in the form of country profiles. The objectives of the country profiles are to: describe the current status of the use of ICT for health in Member States; and provide information concerning the progress of eHealth applications in these countries. (Excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Reproductive health and health system reform in Romania.

    Arghisan LT; Farcasanu DO; Horga M

    Entre Nous. 2009; (68):24-25.

    Romania is a very special case when it comes to reproductive health in the modern world. After 30 years of a prohibitive society that denied couples and women the right to family planning, as a result of the political changes in December 1989 women in Romania have regained the fundamental right to freely decide the number of desired children, as well as the timing and spacing of births. Decree Law No. 1/ 1989, which promoted total abortion liberalization was the first resolution passed after the political changes in 1989 and it can be considered the symbolic foundation of family planning (FP) in Romania.
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  13. 13

    Supporting country-led initiatives to strengthen national health information systems in East Africa.

    Coleman T; Garten AD

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Health Policy Initiative, 2009 Oct. [34] p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-05-00040-00)

    In response to a growing recognition of the importance of reliable and timely health information systems (HIS) to support improved decisionmaking for public health action and health systems strengthening, USAID supported a regional forum in East Africa that focused on engaging HIS champions from key public sectors -- including health, finance, telecommunications, and vital statistics -- and supporting country ownership of HIS. Toward that end, delegations from six focus countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, with Namibia and Sudan as observers) convened for a three-day workshop, "Country Ownership Strategies: Leadership Forum on Health Information Systems," in Addis Ababa from August 10-13, 2009. As part of the preparation and planning for this forum, the USAID |Health Policy Initiative, Task Order 1 designed and executed a semi-structured qualitative survey to capture the current state of HIS in each of the six focus countries. This report highlights the results of that survey and includes background materials that supported the survey process. Given the overall success of the first forum, USAID is exploring ways to replicate this activity in other regions and continue to provide country-specific technical and financial assistance for HIS strengthening..
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  14. 14

    Reproductive health surveillance in the US-Mexico border region: beyond the border (and into the future) [editorial]

    Kotelchuck M

    Preventing Chronic Disease. 2008 Oct; 5(4):A109.

    This editorial examines reproductive health surveillance in the US- Mexico border region. It offers improvements for reproductive health data system methods and recommendations for sustainability of the project. It also proposes revisions to the Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women’s Health (BMSCP) in the following areas: maternal birthing experiences, women’s health over the life course, migration history, acculturation/cultural identity/border region identity, Latina reproductive health, and MCH policy relevance.
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Looking for sex in all the wrong places.

    Camargo KR Jr; Mattos RA

    Global Public Health. 2008; 3(S2):92-104.

    The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of how issues on sexuality are captured by the World Bank's economic rationality, producing a sanitised discourse which, through its silences, further contributes to a normalised view of sexuality. Given the Bank's authority to determine what kinds of health and development programmes are established in the developing world, it is in a unique position to influence approaches to issues of gender and sexuality. An analysis of the Bank's documents reveals, however, that rather than addressing these fundamental components of some of the most pressing health emergencies of our time, its economic rationality and technocratic viewpoint has effectively silenced and sanitised the discourse on sexuality, thereby limiting what sexuality and gender-related issues can be tackled in the context of Bank sponsored programmes, and constraining efforts to advance fundamental sexual rights. Nevertheless, unexpected and paradoxical results may arise from that process, which, thus, does not necessarily lead to the furthering of a comprehensive conservative agenda. (author's)
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  16. 16

    Rwanda: Assessing the logistics management system for contraceptives. Executive summary.

    Ouedraogo Y; Utshudi A; Pehe N; Ndahinyuka J; Roche G

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Mar. 15 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In 2002, Rwanda's Ministry of Health carried out a survey on the performance of the logistics system for contraceptives, with technical support from DELIVER. In 2003 and 2004, routine surveys were undertaken as a follow-up to the program to ensure the availability of contraceptives and to strengthen the contraceptive logistics management system. This 2006 assessment report identifies areas where improvements have since been achieved and suggests remedial recommendations as well as actions to improve the logistics system. Information on the performance of the logistics system, the availability of products, and the availability and quality of logistics data is also presented. The report notes that Rwanda's logistics management system for contraceptives is in place, and that it correctly fulfills expected tasks. Products are available and the system runs smoothly. Critical logistics data are sent to the central level on a regular basis, and the reporting rate has reached 100 percent. Stockouts are marginal. This report illustrates the conditions that contributed to the satisfactory results achieved by the existing contraceptive management system. (author's)
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  17. 17

    Guatemala: Orienting affiliates on the design and implementation of a state-of-the-art management system.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    Notes from the Field. 2001 Jun; (5):[2] p..

    A three-person team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region conducted a training workshop in Guatemala for several affiliates on the design and implementation of the Integrated Management System and also received feedback on the system. A three-person team from IPPF/WHR recently conducted a training workshop in Antigua, Guatemala for several IPPF/WHR affiliates on the design and implementation of the highly anticipated Integrated Management System (IMS). The workshop was an opportunity both to orient the participants to the new system as well as to get their feedback on the IMS and the extent to which it meets their needs. WHR team members included Leslie, Director of MIS, María Cristina, Regional Supplies Officer, and Rupal, Evaluation Officer. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    CRIS: Country Response Information System: overview of the system and its plan of establishment.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Country and Regional Support Department. CRIS Unit

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Country and Regional Support Department, CRIS Unit, 2003 Mar. 42 p.

    Improved information and informed analysis are critical for the development of expanded national responses to HIV/AIDS. Some countries have developed HIV/AIDS surveillance systems and countries are increasingly collecting information on resources allocated for HIV/AIDS programmes and projects. Responding to the needs at the national and global levels for improved information and analysis, UNAIDS has embarked on an ambitious plan to establish an information system to support national AIDS responses. This document describes the historical development of the Country Response Information System (CRIS), and the related activities scheduled by UNAIDS in 2002 and 2003. It describes the philosophy of the proposed CRIS development for policy-makers and potential CRIS users. This philosophy stems from ongoing efforts to follow a modular approach to establishing a country-level information system. The system will be housed in National AIDS Councils (or equivalents), will contain national and subnational indicators, as well as programmatic information and key data pertinent to each national response. CRIS will provide partners in the global response to HIV/AIDS with a user-friendly system consisting of an indicator database, a project/resource-tracking database, a research inventory database and other important information. In particular, the indicator database, as the first component of the system to be operational, provides countries with a tool for reporting on national follow-up to the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Implementation of the global malaria control strategy. Report of a WHO Study Group on the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Malaria Control, 1993-2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Malaria Control


    A World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group recommends how to best implement the Global Malaria Control Strategy, first at the regional level, then at the national level. It provides a plan for program managers, health service administrators, and international partners in health development to determine priorities for the development and management of malaria control that address local situations and needs. The Work Group proposes ways to strengthen general health services to allow them to be completely responsible in making early diagnosis and providing treatment for people at risk. Its report provides guidance on how communities can become involved as full partners in malaria control efforts. It sets standards for developing epidemiological and managerial information systems that meet local and global needs for monitoring the malaria situation and for program planning, monitoring, and evaluation. The report's section on disease management covers diagnosis and treatment of malaria, training and health education for malaria management, drug supply and logistics, and quality assurance. In the disease prevention section, it discusses options and criteria for use of selective vector control, identification of epidemiological types, and implementation of preventive measures. The section on health information systems addresses information needs at the periphery, generation of information by general health services, reorientation of information towards disease management, malaria case definition, information requirements for evaluation and monitoring, mechanisms for monitoring, mechanisms for monitoring epidemic risk, and strengthening operational research capabilities.
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  20. 20

    Information support for new public health action at district level.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Information Support for New Public Health Action at District Level


    This World Health Organization expert committee report presents chapters on new public health action towards health for all; current issues in health information; health information needs at the district level; methods for collecting and processing information; the analysis, presentation, and reporting of health information; facilitating the use of health information; and resources and management support to district health information development. Many countries in recent years have developed national health information systems to supply a range of essential health information for national policy making and health planning. National health systems at the district level are closely involved in data collection and reporting. These systems face the challenges of how to continue supporting district-level managers in implementing primary health care and how to decide what new information will be required at the local level, especially for monitoring the equity, coverage, quality, and efficiency of health interventions, as a country undergoes major health system reforms. Health information systems suffer from a number of well-known problems, with further improvements still required in data collection processes, methods of analysis, use of microcomputers and informatics, and the presentation and communication of health information. These new challenges emphasize the critical need that all countries have for reliable, relevant, timely, and useful health information. Recommendations are made for member states and the World Health Organization.
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  21. 21

    [Supplement on bibliographical services throughout the world in 1978] Supplement sur les services bibliographiques dans le monde en 1978; Suplemento relativo a los servicios bibliograficos en el mundo en 1978.


    General Information Programme--Unisist Newsletter. 1980; (Annual Suppl):1-102.

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  22. 22

    [Directory of United Nations information systems] Repertoire des systems d'information des Nations Unies; Directorio de sistemas de information de las Naciones Unidas.

    United Nations. Interorganization Board for Information Systems

    Geneva, Switz., U.N. Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems, 1980.

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  23. 23

    Strengthening the co-ordination of information systems in the United Nations system. Report of the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Administrative Committee on Co-ordination

    [Unpublished] 1982 Jul 5. 47 p. (E/1982/85; GE.82-64072)

    This report responds to the UN Economic and Social Council resolution 1981/63, which requested the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) to review its decision by which it had terminated the operational functions of the Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems and abolished its secretariat. Several fundamental points concerning UN information activities are presented: 1) information systems are an integral part of UN activities; 2) a major effort at improving information flows requires a number of complementary measures, and a clear definition of objectives, costs, and benefits of the proposed measures; and 3) improvements in information systems work should be undertaken as a series of steps. The Economic and Social Council may wish to have countries' views ascertained through a joint meeting of government and secretariat representatives. Several recommendations are made. First, an effort should be made by organization and member states to acquaint users with the existence and possibilities of access to the information available in the UN family; a special panel should be set up for this purpose. Second, a specialized panel should identify the areas of information handling where the application of existing or proposed new standards is necessary. Third, a specialized panel on indexing vocabularies should be set up under the leadership of the UN's Dag Hammarskjold Library to produce a common, generic vocabulary for indexing and retrieving UN substantive information. Also recommended are the following: 1) an interagency approach to the use of common communications systems could result in more effective transfer of information while keeping costs down; 2) a panel is needed to study the most cost-effective manner of developing the UNDP's Project Institutional Memory, and of including information on bilateral technical cooperation activities; and 3) a new institutional structure is proposed which includes the maintenance of an interagency body and an interagency funded secretariat for that body. Also included is the text of the final report of the ACC.
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  24. 24

    Donor support for contraceptive commodities.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1996. iii, 12 p. (Technical Report No. 32; E/800/1996)

    This UN Population Fund (UNFPA) technical report presents information on donated contraceptive commodities for developing countries during 1992-94 based on the database maintained by the Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs in Developing Countries. Established in March 1993, this database serves as a practical and useful repository of information on donated contraceptive commodities, which includes condoms for HIV/AIDS prevention. Findings indicate that support provided by the US Agency for International Development has varied, while support from UNFPA has steadily increased. In addition, oral contraceptive and condoms constituted the major part of the expenditure which was distributed in 167 countries and territories, with over half of all these expenditures were received by Bangladesh, Philippines, Vietnam, India, Nepal, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Nigeria, Kenya and Mexico. Comparing the estimated requirements of contraceptive costs with the donated support reveals a large gap, which could be attributed to the fact that the contraceptive requirements of the region have been largely met by local production and national procurement. To end, this paper emphasizes the need for a more prospective-oriented data system in the face of the increasing demand for modern contraceptives, by enabling countries to program their future contraceptive requirements and develop the required logistics systems for their distribution.
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  25. 25

    Hunger mapping: food insecurity and vulnerability information.


    Save the Children Foundation (SCF), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed the "household food economy analysis" to assess the needs of an area or population facing acute food insecurity. This method considers all of the ways people secure access to food and illustrates the distribution of various food supplies in pie charts that allow comparison of the percentage contribution of each option during a normal year and a "bad" year. Data are gathered through the use of key informants, and the analysis permits identification of ways to support local initiatives and to target assistance. As a result of this work, SCF and another NGO, Helen Keller International, attended a March 1997 expert consultation organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to create a workplan for the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) called for in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The consultation adopted use of the FAO's food and balance sheet approach, despite its limitations, and determined that indicators should be location- and time-specific as well as 1) simple and reliable, 2) readily available, 3) social and anthropometric, and 4) found at all levels. The consultation also recommended combination of the key informant and the indicator approach to data collection. Finally, the consultation identified appropriate actions that should be accomplished before the 1998 meeting of the FAO's Committee on World Food Security.
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