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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Feb 2.  p.All over the world women are expected to take the lead in domestic work and in providing care to family members. HIV and AIDS have significantly increased the care burden for many women. Poverty and poor public services have also combined with AIDS to turn the care burden for women into a crisis with far-reaching social, health and economic consequences. The term 'care economy' is sometimes used to describe the many tasks carded out mostly by women and girls at home such as cooking, cleaning, fetching water and many other activities associated with caring for the young, sick and elderly in the household. The value of the time, energy and resources required to perform this unpaid work is hardly recognized and accounted for, despite its critical contribution to the overall economy and society in general. Women and girls pay an opportunity cost when undertaking unpaid care work for HIV and AIDS-related illnesses since their ability to participate in income generation, education, and skills building diminish. AIDS intensifies the feminization of poverty, particularly in hard-hit countries, and disempowers women. Entire families are also affected as vulnerability increases when women's time caring for the sick is taken away from other productive tasks within the household. (excerpt)
In: Background papers, Human Development Report 1995, [compiled by] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. New York, New York, UNDP, 1996. 89-104.The introduction of this background paper for the UN's 1995 Human Development Report, which examines the analytical and political visibility of the work of social reproduction, notes that social reproduction currently occupies a blank space in current economic analyses that lack a macro-framework capable of revealing the role of social reproduction of people as well as the gender and class conflicts that exist in the capitalist relationship between profit production and social reproduction. The first section of the paper discusses the difficulty of integrating domestic work into economic analysis in a way that acknowledges the differences between the production of commodities and the reproduction of the species. Section 2 places the sector and process of reproduction in the more systematic analytical location through use of the perspective of livelihood economies. The third section offers a classical surplus approach as a means of visualizing the conflicts inherent in the capitalist production-reproduction relationship, and this approach is used in the fourth section to locate domestic work in a macro economic analysis. Section 5 presents the present structuring of the global labor markets as the context in which reproduction and paid/unpaid labor must be analyzed, and section 6 assesses the gender policies of the World Bank to determine their capacity for challenging mainstream theories. The final section argues for a strategic policy of reversing the direction of the production-reproduction relationship by making production and markets responsible and accountable institutions that contribute to human welfare.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1993. 32,  p.UNICEF sees women in the whole range of their interconnected mothering, family support, community, and socioeconomic roles. An essential precondition to improved social well-being of women is their empowerment. UNICEF's policy is that women's development must be integrated with the socioeconomic mainstream. Gender-based inequalities are targets for affirmative action. UNICEF recognizes that women's low status is decided at conception. It is taking initiatives to bring about major changes in policies and attitudes so the disadvantages females face are not passed to their children, particularly their daughters. In the mid-1980s, UNICEF conducted a series of studies in the Middle East and North Africa on the cultural attitudes emphasizing the value of sons against daughters, which are responsible for the lower survival rate of girls. UNICEF is a strong advocate for the girl child. UNICEF calls for elimination of female genital mutilation. It sponsors studies on the role of sexually transmitted diseases in perinatal deaths. UNICEF supports HIV/AIDS prevention activities, often conducted by local nongovernmental organizations. It supports maternal health and nutrition projects in developing countries. UNICEF promotes breast feeding. UNICEF supports income generation projects for women. It provides guarantees for loans taken out by women in some developing countries. UNICEF provides funds for technologies that reduce the workload of women and girls, such as handpumps and soak-pit latrines. UNICEF has increased its efforts to increase girls' enrollment in schools. It supports adult education for women. UNICEF supports day care programs, such as that in Malawi. In Somalia, UNICEF promotes a nationwide network of women's groups to help postwar service reconstruction and the rebirth of civil society. It is committed to its policy of stressing community participation.
Development. 1989; (4):49-51.In 1970, the United Nations adopted a long-term women's advancement program and other initiatives to raise consciousness on women's issues and to identify appropriate actions to take in promoting gender equality and women's integration in development. Setting its objective as equality between the sexes by the year 2000, the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies is also a UN system-wide medium-term plan with specific activities to implement over the period 1990-95. These UN actions have, therefore, prepared the way for women's advancement in the 1990s and beyond. Efforts do, however, need to be made to build upon and expand these initiatives to facilitate the total integration, participation, and recognition of women in the social, economic, and political lives of countries throughout the world. Present UN strategy suffers from multiple focal points, a diffused mandate, limited financial resources, and inadequate interaction with national governments. The development of an UN Special Agency for Women's Development is suggested as a way of solidly propelling women ahead toward globally-recognized equality and greater overall opportunity. This agency would be the umbrella over existing and future related programs and activities, armed with a clear and specific mandate, an independent executive board, an independent fundraising ability, institutional arrangements to undertake in-country projects, and field offices.
POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1989 Nov; 15(7):3-6.The 1989, UN Population Fund report has recommended 7 broad interventions, with suggested detailed actions to place population at the forefront of development for the 1990s. Family planning is a development priority: it should compare 1% of each country's GNP. Women should empower themselves to shape their own lives. The recommendations are: 1) women's contributions should be documented. 2) Women's productivity should be increased, and their double burden lessened, by giving them credit, ownership of resources, equal pay, better domestic technology and child care at the workplace. 3) Family planning should be ensured with a variety of choice and full information. 4) Women's health should be improved by training birth attendants and all women for decision-making in health, and supplementing food for girls, and young pregnant teens and mothers. 5) Female education should be expanded to at least 4:5 ratio in primary and a 1:2 ratio in secondary schools, and pregnant teens should be allowed to continue their education. 6) Women should be given equal opportunity in all sectors. 7) Goals for 2000 are: international assistance for family planning of $2.5 billion annually; family planning services for 500 million; at least 1 prenatal visit for all; maternal mortality should be reduced 50%; and infant mortality to 50/1000.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. , vii, 397 p. (ST/CSDHA/6)This is the 1st update of the World Survey on the Role of Women in Development published by WHO. 11 chapters consider such topics as the overall theme, debt and policy adjustment, food and agriculture, industrial development, service industries, informal sector, policy response, technology, women's participation in the economy and statistics. The thesis of the document is that while isolated improvements in women's condition can be found, the economic deterioration in most developing countries has struck women hardest, causing a "feminization of poverty." Yet because of their potential and their central role in food production, processing, textile manufacture, and services among others, short and long term policy adjustments and structural transformation will tap women's potential for full participation. Women;s issues in agriculture include their own nutritional status, credit, land use, appropriate technology, extension services, intrahousehold economics and forestry. For their part in industrial development, women need training and/or re-training, affirmative action, social support, and better working conditions to enable them to participate fully. In the service industries the 2-tier system of low and high-paid jobs must be dismantled to allow women upward mobility. Regardless of the type of work being discussed, agricultural, industrial, primary or service, formal or informal, family roles need to be equalized so that women do not continue to bear the triple burden of work, housework and reproduction.
Report of the Seminar on the Role of Women in Social and Economic Development with Special Reference to Rural Development, Tashkent, USSR, 17-27 September 1987.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1988. iii, 43 p.The Seminar was attended by participants from China, India, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the USSR, and Viet Nam. The 1st substantive agenda item was an examination of the role of women in rural development in Asia and the Pacific. Most of the economic development has left the rural areas relatively untouched despite the fact that the 2 largest countries in Asia, China and India, are 80% and 75% rural. Women's traditional roles have been bound by a socioeconomic, political and cultural mind-set that restricted the realization of their full potential. Women work longer hours than men but have a higher mortality rate, due to high maternal mortality, and women constitute the majority of illiterates. 2 requirements for the integration of women into rural development are identified as collection of data on the situation of rural women and the inclusion of women in rural development planning. India's 6th 5-year plan had included a 3-fold strategy to improve women's education, employment and health; and these strategies were being continued in the 7th 5-year plan (1985-1990). Women's life expectancy grew from 31.7 years in 1951 to 51.2 years in 1981. Women have achieved a 40% share in wage employment, but only a 13% share in the Integrated Rural Development Program. In Nepal 96% of the female labor force is still employed in agriculture, and female literacy is only 18%. The 6th 5-year plan (1980-1985) contained a separate chapter on women's development, and the 7th plan (1985-1990) contains policies for advancing women's education and health. In Sri Lanka women have a literacy rate of 86%. However, agricultural development reforms have largely been targeted at men. The 1987 constitution of the Philippines guaranteed the equality of women, but rural women still work 14-17 hours a day in household and farm work, and in many areas female illiteracy is still 65%. In China, after the revolution, the laws which discriminated against women were abolished, and the economic reforms of the 1980s enabled rural women to become more productive both in agriculture and light industry. However, female infant mortality is still higher than male, women's rights of inheritance are still not guaranteed, and women have retained a sense of their own inferiority. In Viet Nam in 1945 land was redistributed to the peasants and subsequently collectivized. 65% of the agricultural labor force are women, and 28% of rural women are in managerial positions in the state farms and cooperatives. The Seminar reaffirmed its commitment to various global mandates on women and stressed the importance of the International Women's Congress in Moscow. The delegates then visited collective farms and factories, participated in the 60th anniversary celebration of the "Khudjum" campaign for the emancipation of women in Uzbekistan, and made a visit to Ferghana on the occasion of Mother's Glory Day, on which Mother Heroine medals were awarded to mothers who had reared at least 10 children. The Seminar then reconvened and adopted 69 resolutions to be proposed to governments concerning the integration of women into rural development policies.