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New York, New York, UN Women, . 4 p. (Policy Brief No. 3)Remittances and their potential to contribute to development are becoming a central focus of global migration governance. With women making up approximately half of all migrant workers globally, there is a shifting focus of many policies and programmes to include remittances sent by women. Based on research and lessons learned from the joint UN Women–EU-funded global project, “Promoting and protecting women migrant workers’ labour and human rights: Engaging with international, national human rights mechanisms to enhance accountability”, which is piloted in Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines, this Brief considers the different ways that women transfer and spend remittances, and provides recommendations to better understand and maximize these remittances.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006 Dec. 40 p. (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4082)This paper uses a 13-year panel of individuals in Tanzania to assess how adult mortality shocks affect both short and long-run consumption growth of surviving household members. Using unique data which tracks individuals from 1991 to 2004, we examine consumption growth, controlling for a set of initial community, household and individual characteristics; the effect is identified using the sample of households in 2004 which grew out of baseline households. We find robust evidence that an affected household will see consumption drop 7 percent within the first five years after the adult death. With high growth in the sample over this time period, this creates a 19 percentage point growth gap with the average household. There is some evidence of persistent effects of these shocks for up to 13 years, but these effects are imprecisely estimated and not significantly different from zero. The impact of female adult death is found to be particularly severe. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 21 p. (Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa Working Paper No. 9)This paper starts with a look at the pattern of public expenditure in Africa during the adjustment decade, paying particular attention to the social sectors. It concludes that the poverty focus and the poverty reduction impact of public spending in Africa is very low. The reasons for this include a lack of funds for nonwage recurrent expenditures in core economic and social services, inadequate intrasectoral resource allocation from a poverty reduction point of view, and public expenditure management inefficiencies. Absolute levels of expenditure on essential services are low in Sub-Saharan Africa compared with richer countries. It is therefore concluded that increases in financial resources to support anti-poverty programs are needed in Africa. But raising the poverty focus of governmental expenditures also requires changes in the within sector and the functional composition of public spending, as well as improvements in the factors which hamper the effectiveness of program delivery. (author's)
In: To cure all hunger. Food policy and food security in Sudan, edited by Simon Maxwell. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1991. 85-113.National governments in less developed countries face the responsibility of providing adequate food supplies for per capita consumption despite population increase and high degrees of variability in domestic production. It is debatable whether structural adjustment in food-insecure countries of sub-Saharan Africa helps or hinders the achievement of food security, since there is an apparent conflict between food security and adjustment programs. Food security relates to policies of a nation to acquire adequate food, while adjustment programs are concerned with achieving external balance by eliminating the excess of domestic consumption over domestic production. The target consumption level is defined as 140 kg of cereals/head/year, considered as a minimum for a healthy diet by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. During the drought years, the self-sufficiency component fell below 109% reaching its minimum of 41% in 1984-85. This was not compensated for by the ability to purchase commercial imports of cereals, causing the national food security (NF) index to fall to 86%, 74%, and 47% during the 3 drought years, respectively. What consumption is estimated to affect 25% of the total population, as it is the staple of the urban population. Transitory food insecurity is often caused by poor rainy seasons affecting the size of harvests and employment, while chronic food insecurity is the result of the underdevelopment of rural areas. Bank of Sudan price indices show that consumer prices increased by a fact of 10 between 1978 and 1986. In Sudan, International Monetary Fund (IMF) program support was suspended during the 1982 stand-by arrangement because the government intervened in the private foreign-exchange market. IMF assistance was formally stopped in February 1985. The conflict between food security and adjustment programs will remain until non-anti-poor adjustment policies are designed by the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1992 Jan-Mar; 4(1):8.Working class women have always been creative in developing methods of surviving when times get bad. Examples include: earning income from informal sector work, trading in foods stuffs and manufactured items, domestic work. They also alter their consumption patterns by cutting purchases and making do with less, and by planting kitchen gardens. Others relay on remittances from relatives who have migrated to developed nations. Most use multiple strategies to secure the well being of their children and family. These flexible behavior patterns are among the strengths of Caribbean working class women that allow them to deal the harsh realities of poverty. However these strengths have been turned around and used against these women by many governmental and international agencies. The fact that they are able to cope is used to support programs that only perpetuate the situation rather than helping these women to change their lives. These women are caught in a cycle of deprivation, powerlessness, acceptance of hardship, survival strategies, continuing exploitation and continuing deprivation. Because of the actions of such agencies there are 3 basic strategies that should be followed: (1) those designed to ensure day to day maintenance, (2) those designed to determine the elements necessary for longer term solutions, (3) those that challenge negative macroeconomic policies. Strategies must also be distinguished based on those that meet practical gender needs, and those that address strategic gender interests. The importance of this distinction can be seen in the austerity measures which have been central features of most adjustment policies. Policies must be formed in a holistic context that revolve around macro economic issues.
The Population Council's research program on infant and child mortality in Southeast Asia: a case study of the relationship between contamination of infant weaning foods, household food handling practices, morbidity, and growth faltering in a rural Thai population.
Bangkok, Thailand, Population Council, Regional Office for South and East Asia, 1986 Aug. 24 p. (Population Council Regional Research Papers. South and East Asia)This booklet describes the overall plan of the research program on infant and child mortality in Southeast Asia, sponsored by the Population Council, the Ford Foundation, the Australian Development Assistance Bureau, and the Canadian International Development Research Center. The objectives are to gain scientific knowledge about the socioeconomic, behavioral and medical factors in mortality; to increase awareness through networking and publication; and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the household and community levels. It is assumed that a small number of simple techniques will prevent over half of child deaths. Applied social science or operations research will be used primarily, rather than clinical or demographic studies. Statistical sociological correlations between a variety of environmental characteristics and mortality as the dependent variable will point to determinants of mortality. The 5 chief determinants are: maternal factors, environmental contamination, nutrient deficiencies, injury, and personal illness controls. The concerns reflected in the projects funded so far include: to focus on some combination of determinants of child survival; to focus on a specific location; to use multiple approaches to data collection; to produce results that can be applied as interventions. As an example, the study on the relationship of contamination of infant weaning foods to morbidity and infant growth in a rural Thai population is summarized.