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Contraception. 1973 Jul; 8(1):67-73.The World Health Organization (WHO) Program of Research in Human Reproduction that began in 1972 deals with the development of a variety of safe, acceptable, and effective methods for the regulation of human fertility. Research has concentrated on areas where international collaboration would be most likely to accelerate the development of new methods. The program is clinically oriented and emphasizes meeting the objectives in the shortest possible time. Collaborative task force research was started in the following fields: 1) methods to interfere with the transport and/or survival of the ovum; 2) methods to prevent the implantation of the fertilized ovum in the uterus; 3) contraceptive methods for men that affect the fertilizing capacity of sperm by interfering with their maturation and survival without affecting sexual competence; and 4) methods to regulate sperm migration and survival in the human female.
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1966. (Technical Report Series No. 334.) 21 p.A WHO Scientific Group on Immunological Aspects of Human Reproduction met in Geneva October 4-9, 1965. Topics of discussion included: 1) immunology of human gonadotropins; 2) sperm and seminal fluid; 3) blood group antigens and human reproduction; and 4) maternal-fetal immunological interactions. It was concluded that further investigations are required to study: 1) the correlation between physiocochemical, biological, and immunological criteria for the purity of antigens concerned in human reproduction; 2) the chemical structure of hormones concerned with reproduction, with special reference to the biologically active sites and the nature of antibodies against these active sites; 3) production of antibodies to the gonadotropins by the use of adjuvants and/or chemically modified gonadotropins; 4) modification of hormones from other species to render them active but non-antigenic in man; 5) the use of immunological methods for assisting in the detection of the time of ovulation: these could aid in the control of fertility and in the treatment of infertility; 6) the development of strains of animals of high immunological competence; 7) characterization of the male antigens responsible for various immunological phenomena in males; 8) characterization of male antigens responsible for inducing circulating antibodies and reducing the fertility of immunized females; 9) the nature and biological significance of the antagglutinins; 10) possible ways of interfering with the transmission of antibodies in man; and 11) the possible occurrence of specific antitrophoblastic antibodies in pre and postpartum. Other research needs are also outlined.
CONTRACEPTION. 1992 Aug; 46(2):103-4.WHO formed its Task Force on Methods for the Regulation of Male Fertility in 1972. Its charge is developing safe, effective, reversible, and affordable contraceptive methods for developing countries. The research focus is on suppression of sperm production. The research strategy consists of 3 parts: suppression of secretion of the pituitary gonadotropin hormones, recouping circulating androgen to physiological levels without prompting spermatogenesis, and determining the functional ability of residual sperm if treatment does not bring about azoospermia in all cases. A task Force study reveals that men of various ethnic groups respond to testosterone contraceptives differently. Other clinical research involved an androgen with a progestogen such as DMPA. Since steroids are basically inexpensive to produce they may prove to be beneficial and affordable to national family planning programs in developing countries. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists proved to be relatively effective in suppressing gonadotropins and sperm production in animals. Scientists working on developing GnRH antagonists should strive to formulate a reversible contraceptive with no side effects which requires limited injections. The Task Force carried out a study in bonnet monkeys with the GnRH agonist buserelin in which buserelin suppressed spermatogenesis for 3 years and, after treatment, testicular function was entirely restored. Subsequent mating trials indicated they were fertile. The Task Force planned to follow the study with a GnRH antagonist. The 1st international gathering on GnRH analogues in China served to bring together scientists the world over to meet and to collaborate in developing new drugs for contraceptive use.
In: Sciarra, J.J., Markland, C. and Speidel, J.J., eds. Control of male fertility. (Proceedings of a Workshop on the Control of Male Fertility, San Francisco, June 19-21, 1974). Hagerstown, Maryland, Harper and Row, 1975. p. 274-307Literature on research approaches to permanent and relatively reversible methods of male fertility control is reviewed. Sources and expenditures for research into male fertility control are noted. Permanent methods discussed include electrocautery of the vas, transcutaneous interruption of the vas, vasectomy clips, chemical occlusion of the vas, and passive immunization. Reversible methods reviewed include vasovasotomy, intravasal plugs, and vas valves. Current research into animal models, reversibility after vas occlusion, nonocclusive surgical techniques, pharmacological alteration of male reproductive function, including adrenergic blocking agents, steroidal compounds, inhibitors of gonadotropin secretion, clomiphene citrate, organosiloxanes, prostaglandins, alpha-chlorohydrin, heterocyclic agents, and alkylating agents, and delivery systems for antifertility agents is discussed. Research into semen storage and improved condoms is also reviewed. As a relatively low proportion of funds are committed to research in male fertility control, a greater investment in applied and clinical research is warranted.