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Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.
Transfusion Clinique Et Biologique. 2009 Nov-Dec; 16(5-6):444-7.Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (p<0.001) higher among donations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.
Antiretroviral resistance patterns and HIV-1 subtype in mother-infant pairs after the administration of combination short-course zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009 Jul 15; 49(2):299-305.BACKGROUND: World Health Organization guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recommend administration of zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine (NVP) for HIV-1-infected women who are not receiving treatment for their own health or if complex regimens are not available. This study assessed antiretroviral resistance patterns among HIV-infected women and infants receiving single-dose NVP in Thailand, where the predominant circulating HIV-1 strains are CRF01_AE recombinants and where the minority are subtype B. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from (1) HIV-infected women who received zidovudine from 34 weeks' gestation and single-dose NVP plus oral zidovudine during labor and (2) HIV-infected infants who received single-dose NVP after birth plus zidovudine for 4 weeks after delivery. HIV-1 drug resistance testing was performed using the TruGene assay (Bayer HealthCare). RESULTS: Most mothers and infants were infected with CRF01_AE. NVP resistance was detected in 34 (18%) of 190 women and 2 (20%) of 10 infants. There was a significantly higher proportion of NVP mutations in women with delivery viral loads of >50,000 copies/mL (adjusted odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-32.8, [Formula: see text] for linear trend) and in those with subtype B rather than CRF01_AE infections (38% vs. 16%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-11.8; P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: The lower frequency of NVP mutations among mothers infected with subtype CRF01_AE, compared with mothers infected with subtype B, suggests that individuals infected with subtype CRF01_AE may be less susceptible to the induction of NVP resistance than are individuals infected with subtype B.
CD4 validation for the World Health Organization classification and clinical staging of HIV/AIDS in a developing country.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009 Mar; 13(2):243-6.OBJECTIVES: To validate the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and classification of HIV/AIDS using CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in the setting of a developing country. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected adults at the national HIV referral clinic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four hundred HIV-infected individuals were reviewed. All individuals under the age of 15 years and those who had received antiretroviral therapy were excluded. WHO clinical stage at presentation was determined by a single reviewer. The first CD4+ T-lymphocyte count within 6 months of diagnosis of HIV infection was then abstracted by a different reviewer. The main outcome measure was the comparison of the WHO clinical stages of HIV/AIDS at the time of diagnosis and the CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. RESULTS: Data were available for 191 individuals, of whom 123 were men and 68 were women. The mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 281/mm(3) in the men and 425/mm(3) in the women. The distribution of individuals at the WHO clinical stages was 110 at stage I, 10 at stage II, 36 at stage III, and 35 at stage IV. Mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were 457, 337, 188, and 86/mm(3) at the respective stages. The difference between the mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in patients at stage IV and at each of the other stages was significant; p<0.0001. The correlation between the stages and the mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts was -0.65. CONCLUSION: The WHO clinical staging and classification of HIV/AIDS correlates well with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts.