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Global progress in PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment in low- and middle-income countries in 2004 -- 2005.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2007 Sep; 15(30):179-189.A growing number of countries are moving to scale up interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in maternal and child health services. Similarly, many are working to improve access to paediatric HIV treatment. This paper reviews national programme data for 2004-2005 from low- and middle-income countries to track progress in these programmes. The attainment of the UNGASS target of reducing HIV infections by 50% by 2010 necessitates that 80% of all pregnant women accessing antenatal care receive PMTCT services. In 2005, only seven of the 71 countries were on track to meet this target. However PMTCT coverage increased from 7% in 2004 (58 countries) to 11% in 2005 (71 countries). In 2005, 8% of all infants born to HIV positive mothers received antiretroviral prophylaxis for PMTCT, up from 5% in 2004, though only 4% received cotrimoxazole. 11% of HIV positive children in need received antiretroviral treatment in 2005. In 31 countries that had data, 28% of women who received an antiretroviral for PMTCT also reported receiving antiretroviral treatment for their own health. Achieving the UNGASS target is possible but will require substantial investments and commitment to strengthen maternal and child health services, the health workforce and health systems to move from pilot projects to a decentralised, integrated approach. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004. iv, 17 p. (E/500/2004)This report is intended for use in planning contraceptive supply, and for advocacy and resource mobilization. It contains country-specific information provided by donors on the type, quantity and total cost of contraceptives they supplied to reproductive health programmes in developing countries during 2002. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) collected information for this report in 2003; as in earlier years, the UNFPA database is especially useful to illustrate commodity shortfalls and changes in funding by donor and country. The report highlights trends since 1990 and the gap between estimated needs and actual donor support, comparing UNFPA estimates of condom requirements for STI/HIV prevention, and contraceptive requirements for family planning programmes, with actual donor support. It also indicates donor support by region and product, the top ten countries supported by donors and the quantity of male and female condoms supplied. UNFPA tried to collect information on donor support for antibiotics for prevention of STIs/RTIs. In many cases, however, either donors did not record this information or the countries receiving support did not disaggregate information by commodity. UNFPA’s Commodity Management Unit will continue to discuss how to collect this information. (excerpt)
Investing in people: national progress in implementing the ICPD Programme of Action, 1994-2004. International Conference on Population and Development.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004.  p.The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) articulated a bold new vision about the relationships between population, development and individual well-being. At the ICPD, 179 countries adopted a 20-year forward-looking Programme of Action (ICPD PoA), which built on the success of population, maternal health and family planning programmes of the previous decades while addressing, with a new perspective, the needs of the early years of the twenty-first century. As the ICPD is reaching its mid-point in 2004, it is fitting that countries take stock of progress that has been made so far in achieving the Cairo goals. UNFPA is mandated to assist countries in their review of operational experiences in implementing the ICPD PoA, and to that end, conducted a Global Survey in 2003 to appraise national experiences ten years after Cairo. An overall response rate of 92 per cent was achieved for developing and countries in transition. For donor countries, the response rate was 82 per cent. The objectives of this report are to: (a) describe, from an operational perspective, the progress that has been made, and the constraints that have been encountered, by countries in their efforts to implement specific actions of the ICPD PoA and the MDGs; (b) present measures taken with some regional highlights; and (c) summarize the major conclusions arising from the 2003 Global Survey and assess the way forward. The various chapters of the report present the findings and conclusions emanating from the analysis of the Survey. (excerpt)
Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 1999; 10(1):17-20.There is a need for increasing international collaboration in the search for a safe and effective HIV vaccine. In addition to the ethical issues that must be considered in conducting any clinical research, unique issues arise in vaccine research and in international research. Careful deliberation and guideline development regarding the ethics of international vaccine research was the focus of a series of recent consultations sponsored by Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) around the world. (author's)