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  1. 1
    392884
    Peer Reviewed

    The impact and cost of ending AIDS in Botswana.

    Williams BG; Gupta S; Wollmers M; Granich R

    Lancet. HIV. 2016 Sep; 3(9):e409.

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  2. 2
    389408
    Peer Reviewed

    An assessment of staffing needs at a HIV clinic in a Western Kenya using the WHO workload indicators of staffing need WISN, 2011.

    Burmen B; Owuor N; Mitei P

    Human Resources For Health. 2017 Jan 26; 15(1):9.

    BACKGROUND: An optimal number of health workers, who are appropriately allocated across different occupations and geographical regions, are required to ensure population coverage of health interventions. Health worker shortages in HIV care provision are highest in areas that are worst hit by the HIV epidemic. Kenya is listed among countries that experience health worker shortages (<2.5 health workers per 1000 population) and have a high HIV burden (HIV prevalence 5.6 with 15.2% in Nyanza province). We set out to determine the optimum number of clinicians required to provide quality consultancy HIV care services at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, JOOTRH, HIV Clinic, the premier HIV clinic in Nyanza province with a cumulative client enrolment of PLHIV of over 20,000 persons. CASE PRESENTATION: The World Health's Organization's Workload Indicators of Staffing Needs (WISN) was used to compute the staffing needs and sufficiency of staffing needs at the JOOTRH HIV clinic in Kisumu, Kenya, between January and December 2011. All people living with HIV (PLHIV) who received HIV care services at the HIV clinic at JOOTRH and all the clinicians attending to them were included in this analysis. The actual staffing was divided by the optimal staff requirement to give ratios of staffing excesses or shortages. A ratio of 1.0 indicated optimal staffing, less than 1.0 indicated suboptimal staffing, and more than 1 indicated supra optimal staffing. The HIV clinic is served by 56 staff of various cadres. Clinicians (doctors and clinical officers) comprise approximately one fifth of this population (n = 12). All clinicians (excluding the clinic manager, who is engaged in administrative duties and supervisory roles that consumes approximately one third of his time) provide full-time consultancy services. To operate at maximum efficiency, the clinic therefore requires 19 clinicians. The clinic therefore operates with only 60% of its staffing requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Our assessment revealed a severe shortage of clinicians providing consultation services at the HIV clinic. Human resources managers should oversee the rational planning, training, retention, and management of human resources for health using the WISN which is an objective and reliable means of estimating staffing needs.
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  3. 3
    377140
    Peer Reviewed

    Projected Uptake of New Antiretroviral (ARV) Medicines in Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Forecast Analysis 2015-2025.

    Gupta A; Juneja S; Vitoria M; Habiyambere V; Nguimfack BD; Doherty M; Low-Beer D

    PloS One. 2016; 11(10):e0164619.

    With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025. UNAIDS estimates 24.7 million person-years of ART in 2020 and 28.5 million person-years of ART in 2025 (24.3 million on first-line treatment, 3.5 million on second-line treatment, and 0.6 million on third-line treatment). Our analysis showed that TAF and DTG will be major players in the ART regimen by 2025, with 8 million and 15 million patients using these ARVs respectively. However, as safety and efficacy of dolutegravir (DTG) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) during pregnancy and among TB/HIV co-infected patients using rifampicin is still under debate, and ART scale-up is predicted to increase considerably, there also remains a clear need for continuous supplies of existing ARVs including TDF and EFV, which 16 million and 10 million patients-respectively-are predicted to be using in 2025. It will be important to ensure that the existing capacities of generics manufacturers, which are geared towards ARVs of higher doses (such as TDF 300mg and EFV 600mg), will not be adversely impacted due to the introduction of lower dose ARVs such as TAF 25mg and DTG 50mg. With increased access to viral load testing, more patients would be using protease inhibitors containing regimens in second-line, with 1 million patients on LPV/r and 2.3 million on ATV/r by 2025. However, it will remain important to continue monitoring the evolution of ARV market in LMICs to guarantee the availability of these medicines.
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  4. 4
    376955
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Hospitalized Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Mulu H; Hamza L; Alemseged F

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2016 May; 26(3):217-26.

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients admitted to Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 109 HIV/AIDS patients admitted from November 2013 to July 2014. Cohort design was also used for outcome assessment. Serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin and CD4 counts were determined. Data were organized, coded, cleaned, entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was done initially. Those variables in the bivariate analysis with P-value < 0.25 were then considered as candidates to be included in the multivariable logistic regression model. A P-vale of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 32.7+/-8.12 with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Patients were in either clinical stage, 3(46.8%), or stage, 4(53.2%). Forty nine (45%) of the respondents had a CD4 count of < 200 cells/microL. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 46.8% (BMI<18.5kg/m2) and 44.1% (MUAC
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  5. 5
    378771

    [Quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou of Henan province].

    Ma LP; Xu P; Sun DY; Li N; Yang WJ; Zhang L; Bai YJ; Ju LH; He HJ; Chen WY; Lyu P

    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2016 Apr; 50(4):339-45.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou city of Henan province. METHODS: During January to May in 2015, by the convenience sample, World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) (Chinese version) and a self-edited questionnaire were used to investigate 1 251 HIV/AIDS patients who were confirmed with HIV positive by local CDC, registered in"HIV serodiscordant family" and agreed to participate in a face-to-face interview with above 18 year-old based on the local CDC , township hospitals and village clinics of 9 counties and 1 district of Zhoukou city, excluding the HIV/AIDS patients who were in divorce, death by one side, unknowing about his HIV status, with mental illness and disturbance of consciousness, incorrectly understanding the content of the questionnaire, and reluctant to participate in this study. The scores of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were calculated. The related factors of the scores of different domains were analyzed by Multiple Two Classification Unconditioned Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The scores of investigation objects in the physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were 12.00+/- 2.02, 12.07 +/- 2.07, 11.87 +/- 1.99, and 11.09 +/- 1.84, respectively. The multiple Unconditioned Logistic Regression analysis indicated that age <40 years, on ART and no other sickness in last two weeks were beneficial factors associated with physical domain with OR (95%CI): 0.61 (0.35-1.06), 0.52 (0.30-0.90), and 1.66 (1.09-2.52), respectively. The possibility of no poverty and no other sickness in last two weeks increased to 0.15(0.09-0.26) and 1.57(1.06-2.33) times of those who was in poverty and with other sickness in last two weeks in physical domain. The possibility of participants who were below 40 years old and with children increased to 0.58 (0.34-0.98) and 0.37 (0.23-0.57) times of who were above 40 years old and without children in psychological domain. The factors of with AIDS related symptoms, no children and with other sickness in last two week were found to be significantly associated with environmental domain with OR (95%CI): 0.65 (0.48-0.88), 0.66 (0.51-0.85), and 0.65 (0.51-0.84), respectively . CONCLUSION: The scores of every domain of quality of life in HIV serodiscordant couples of Zhoukou city were good. Age, whether having AIDS related symptoms, whether to accept ART , children, status of poverty, and whether suffering from other diseases in last two weeks were the main factors associated with the quality of life.
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  6. 6
    373021

    Progress Toward Strengthening National Blood Transfusion Services - 14 Countries, 2011-2014.

    Chevalier MS; Kuehnert M; Basavaraju SV; Bjork A; Pitman JP

    MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2016 Feb 12; 65(5):115-9.

    Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical intervention; however, challenges to the recruitment of voluntary, unpaid or otherwise nonremunerated whole blood donors and insufficient funding of national blood services and programs have created obstacles to collecting adequate supplies of safe blood in developing countries (1). Since 2004, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided approximately $437 million in bilateral financial support to strengthen national blood transfusion services in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean* that have high prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. CDC analyzed routinely collected surveillance data on annual blood collections and HIV prevalence among donated blood units for 2011-2014. This report updates previous CDC reports (2,3) on progress made by these 14 PEPFAR-supported countries in blood safety, summarizes challenges facing countries as they strive to meet World Health Organization (WHO) targets, and documents progress toward achieving the WHO target of 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donors by 2020 (4). During 2011-2014, overall blood collections among the 14 countries increased by 19%; countries with 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donations remained stable at eight, and, despite high national HIV prevalence rates, 12 of 14 countries reported an overall decrease in donated blood units that tested positive for HIV. Achieving safe and adequate national blood supplies remains a public health priority for WHO and countries worldwide. Continued success in improving blood safety and achieving WHO targets for blood quality and adequacy will depend on national government commitments to national blood transfusion services or blood programs through increased public financing and diversified funding mechanisms for transfusion-related activities.
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  7. 7
    386583

    Planning for HIV preexposure prophylaxis introduction: lessons learned from contraception.

    Delany-Moretlwe S; Mullick S; Eakle R; Rees H

    Current Opinion In HIV and AIDS. 2015 Nov 16;

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize key lessons learned from contraceptive development and introduction, and implications for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). RECENT FINDINGS: New approaches to HIV prevention are urgently needed. PrEP is a new technology for HIV prevention. Uncertainty remains about its acceptance, use and potential to have an impact on the HIV epidemic. Despite imperfect use and implementation of programs, the use of modern contraception has led to significant reproductive health and social gains, making it one of the public health's major achievements. Guided by the WHO strategic approach to contraception introduction, we identified the following lessons for PrEP introduction from contraception: the importance of a broader focus on the method mix rather than promotion of a single technology, new technologies alone do not increase choice - service delivery systems and providers are equally important to success, and that failure to account for user preferences and social context can undermine the potential of new methods to provide benefit. SUMMARY: Taking a strategic approach to PrEP introduction that includes a broader focus on the technology/user interface, the method mix, delivery strategies, and the context in which methods are introduced will benefit HIV prevention programs, and will ensure greater success.
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  8. 8
    351761
    Peer Reviewed

    Care and the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women: a transformative policy space?

    Bedford K

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.

    In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  9. 9
    333454

    UNAIDS terminology guidelines. Revised version.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct. [40] p.

    These guidelines to UNAIDS’ preferred terminology have been developed for use by staff members, colleagues in the Programme’s 10 Cosponsoring organisations, and other partners working in the global response to HIV. Language shapes beliefs and may influence behaviours. Considered use of appropriate language has the power to strengthen the global response to the epidemic. UNAIDS is pleased to make these guidelines to preferred terminology freely available. It is a living, evolving document that is reviewed on a regular basis. Comments and suggestions for additions, deletions, or modifications should be sent to terminology@unaids.org.
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  10. 10
    350101

    Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.

    In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
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  11. 11
    347137
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV: the fight is far from over.

    Lancet. 2010 Dec 4; 376(9756):1874.

    This editorial argues that despite the report by UNAIDS that the trajectory of the HIV epidemic has been broken, a US Institute of Medicine (IOM) report paints a bleaker picture for the immediate future of HIV/AIDS in Africa. The IOM report states that sub-Saharan Africa bears 68% of the worldwide burden of HIV infection and the gap is growing between the number of people needing treatment and the availability of resources.
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  12. 12
    345372

    Health care policy and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the developing world: more questions than answers.

    Flaer PJ; Benjamin PL; Bastos FI; Younis MZ

    Journal of Health Care Finance. 2010; 36(4):75-79.

    When the United Nations declared "health care for all" (at the conferences at Alma-Ata in 1978 and the Ottawa Charter in 1986),(1) the declarations were largely premature to impact the upcoming HIV/AIDS epidemic. These UN declarations still apply today, as multitudes of humanity continue to die from what amounts now to be a treatable chronic disease. Can the wealthier, industrialized countries stand by and watch the decimation of the populations of the developing world by HIV / AIDS? The global "health 9/10 gap," relates that only 10 percent of global heath resources go to developing countries - i.e., those having 90 percent of the poorest world populations. (2) The World Bank/World Health Organization has been at the forefront of providing resources for the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, (3) but for many countries of the developing world (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) it may be too little, too late. This work explores the application of an ecological model to global policy against HIV/AIDS, highlighting access to antiretroviral drugs (ARV). ARV distribution is constrained by patents and laws protecting the intellectual property rights of the international pharmaceutical corporations. In response to this situation, more questions arise. Will governments in the developing world invoke compulsory licensing (patent-breaking) in their negotiations with the international pharmaceutical corporations to provide medications against HIV/AIDS in their countries? Can international political and financial negotiations with these pharmaceutical corporations speed the growing push for a solution to this solvable crisis? The answers may lie in the "Brazilian model," that is a developing world government using all means available to provide ARV drugs for all its citizens with HIV/AIDS. The basis of this model includes negotiating with the pharmaceutical corporations over patent rights and importation of copied drugs from the Far East.
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  13. 13
    341557
    Peer Reviewed

    CD4 validation for the World Health Organization classification and clinical staging of HIV/AIDS in a developing country.

    Edathodu J; Ali B; Alrajhi AA

    International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009 Mar; 13(2):243-6.

    OBJECTIVES: To validate the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and classification of HIV/AIDS using CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in the setting of a developing country. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected adults at the national HIV referral clinic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four hundred HIV-infected individuals were reviewed. All individuals under the age of 15 years and those who had received antiretroviral therapy were excluded. WHO clinical stage at presentation was determined by a single reviewer. The first CD4+ T-lymphocyte count within 6 months of diagnosis of HIV infection was then abstracted by a different reviewer. The main outcome measure was the comparison of the WHO clinical stages of HIV/AIDS at the time of diagnosis and the CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. RESULTS: Data were available for 191 individuals, of whom 123 were men and 68 were women. The mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 281/mm(3) in the men and 425/mm(3) in the women. The distribution of individuals at the WHO clinical stages was 110 at stage I, 10 at stage II, 36 at stage III, and 35 at stage IV. Mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were 457, 337, 188, and 86/mm(3) at the respective stages. The difference between the mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in patients at stage IV and at each of the other stages was significant; p<0.0001. The correlation between the stages and the mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts was -0.65. CONCLUSION: The WHO clinical staging and classification of HIV/AIDS correlates well with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts.
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  14. 14
    327633

    The Millennium Development Goals report 2007.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2007 Jun. 36 p.

    Since their adoption by all United Nations Member States in 2000, the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals have become a universal framework for development and a means for developing countries and their development partners to work together in pursuit of a shared future for all. The Millennium Declaration set 2015 as the target date for achieving most of the Goals. As we approach the midway point of this 15-year period, data are now becoming available that provide an indication of progress during the first third of this 15-year period. This report presents the most comprehensive global assessment of progress to date, based on a set of data prepared by a large number of international organizations within and outside the United Nations system. The results are, predictably, uneven. The years since 2000, when world leaders endorsed the Millennium Declaration, have seen some visible and widespread gains. Encouragingly, the report suggests that some progress is being made even inthose regions where the challenges are greatest. These accomplishments testify to the unprecedented degree of commitment by developing countries and their development partners to the Millennium Declaration and to some success in building the global partnership embodied in the Declaration. The results achieved in the more successful cases demonstrate that success is possible in most countries, but that the MDGs will be attained only if concerted additional action is taken immediately and sustained until 2015. All stakeholders need to fulfil, in their entirety, the commitments they made in the Millennium Declaration and subsequent pronouncements. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    326399

    Population and HIV / AIDS 2007. [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/270)

    The AIDS epidemic remains one of the greatest challenges confronting the international community. In countries with a large number of people living with HIV, all population and development indicators are affected by the epidemic. Governments often cite HIV/AIDS as their most significant demographic concern. For more than two decades, the rapidly expanding HIV/AIDS epidemic has triggered a wide array of responses at the national, regional and global levels. The goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in the 2000 Millennium Declaration and through the adoption of the 2001 Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS reflect widely-held concerns about the impact of the epidemic on development and human well-being. More recently, at the 2006 High Level Meeting on AIDS, Member States adopted a Political Declaration focusing on how to attain universal access to comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention programs, treatment, care and support by 2010. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    325863
    Peer Reviewed

    The sexual and reproductive health of young people in Latin America: Evidence from WHO case studies.

    Kostrzewa K

    Salud Publica de Mexico. 2008 Jan-Feb; 50(1):10-16.

    This original article addresses the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people aged 15 to 24 in Latin America. It introduces five articles from original research projects in three countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. These projects were funded by the World Health Organization. This article explains the importance of studies that address the sexual and reproductive health of young people in developing countries. It provides an overview of sexual and reproductive health issues in Latin America and a discussion these issues in the three study countries. The five articles deal with difficult and challenging issues, including: knowledge of STIs and HIV/ AIDS; pregnancy related practices; quality of care; the role of young men in couple formation, pregnancy and adoption of contraceptive practice; and, the role of obstetricians and gynecologists in public policy debate about family planning and abortion. The four articles in this special section help to improve our understanding of the factors that contribute to risky sexual behavior and negative reproductive health outcomes among youth in Latin America. The findings are useful to help inform and improve health care interventions in various contexts. (author's)
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  17. 17
    325835

    Children and AIDS: Second stocktaking report. Actions and progress.

    UNICEF; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2008 Apr. 48 p.

    This report will focus on three major themes. First, strengthening communities and families is crucial to every aspect of a child-centred approach to AIDS. Support by governments, NGOs and other actors should therefore be complementary to and supportive of these family and community efforts, through, for example, ensuring access to basic services. Second, interventions to support children affected by HIV and AIDS are most effective when they form part of strong health, education and social welfare systems. Unfortunately, because maternal and child health programmes are weak in many countries, millions of children, HIV-positive and -negative alike, go without immunization, mosquito nets and other interventions that contribute to the overall goal of HIV-free child survival. A final theme of this report is the challenge of measurement. Documenting advances and shortfalls strengthens commitment and guides progress. A number of countries have data available on the 'Four Ps', and targeted studies are being developed to assess the situation of the marginalized young people who are most at risk but often missed in routine surveys. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    323277

    International guidelines on HIV / AIDS and human rights. 2006 consolidated version. Second International Consultation on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, Geneva, 23-25 September 1996. Third International Consultation on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, Geneva, 25-26 July 2002. Organized jointly by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS.

    Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2006. 115 p. (HR/PUB/06/9)

    The International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights arose because of various calls for their development in light of the need for guidance for Governments and others on how to best promote, protect and fulfill human rights in the context of the HIV epidemic. During the first International Consultation on AIDS and Human Rights, organized by the United Nations Centre for Human Rights, in cooperation with the World Health Organization, in Geneva, from 26 to 28 July 1989, participants discussed the possible elaboration of guidelines to assist policymakers and others in complying with international human rights standards regarding law, administrative practice and policy. Several years later, in his report to the Commission at its fifty-first session (E/CN.4/1995/45, para.135), the United Nations Secretary-General stated that "the development of such guidelines or principles could provide an international framework for discussion of human rights considerations at the national, regional and international levels in order to arrive at a more comprehensive understanding of the complex relationship between the public health rationale and the human rights rationale of HIV/AIDS. In particular, Governments could benefit from guidelines that outline clearly how human rights standards apply in the area of HIV/AIDS and indicate concrete and specific measures, both in terms of legislation and practice, that should be undertaken". (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    322567

    AIDS epidemic update, December 2007.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Dec. 50 p. (UNAIDS/07.27E; JC1322E)

    Every day, over 6800 persons become infected with HIV and over 5700 persons die from AIDS, mostly because of inadequate access to HIV prevention and treatment services. The HIV pandemic remains the most serious of infectious disease challenges to public health. Nonetheless, the current epidemiologic assessment has encouraging elements since it suggests: the global prevalence of HIV infection (percentage of persons infected with HIV) is remaining at the same level, although the global number of persons living with HIV is increasing because of ongoing accumulation of new infections with longer survival times, measured over a continuously growing general population; there are localized reductions in prevalence in specific countries; a reduction in HIV-associated deaths, partly attributable to the recent scaling up of treatment access; and a reduction in the number of annual new HIV infections globally. Examination of global and regional trends suggests the pandemic has formed two broad patterns: generalized epidemics sustained in the general populations of many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in the southern part of the continent; and epidemics in the rest of the world that are primarily concentrated among populations most at risk, such as men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, sex workers and their sexual partners. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    320935

    UNESCO and HIV / AIDS: ten lessons.

    Hernes G

    In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 253-263. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)

    Twenty years after the identification of AIDS, some 60 million people have been infected by HIV, a number corresponding to the entire population of France, the United Kingdom or Thailand. Those who have died equal the population of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark combined. Those currently infected - more than 40 million - number more than the entire population of Canada. The number of children thought to be orphaned by HIV/AIDS - some 14 million - is already more than the total population of Ecuador. Over the coming decade their numbers may rise to a staggering 50 million worldwide. In other words, the extent of this pandemic is unprecedented in human history. And the worst is yet to come, for many millions more will be infected, many millions more will die, many millions more will be orphaned. On September 11 2001, more than 3,000 people died in the New York bombings. Every day, around the world, HIV infects at least five times that number. But it is not only individuals who are at risk. The social fabric of whole communities, societies and cultures is threatened. The disease is certain to be a scourge throughout our lifetime. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    312039
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV / AIDS, gender, agency and empowerment issues in Africa.

    Kalipeni E; Oppong J; Zerai A

    Social Science and Medicine. 2007 Mar; 64(5):1015-1018.

    This special issue of Social Science and Medicine contains a set of papers that were presented at the 30th Annual Spring Colloquium of the Center for African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and held on April 24, 2004. Focusing on gender, agency and empowerment, the colloquium brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers to interrogate issues concerning HIV/AIDS in Africa. Together, the papers elucidate the role of poverty and economic deprivation in HIV transmission as complex, regionally specific, involving different scales (global to local), and manifesting through migration, gender and cultural politics. It has long been recognized that differences in health levels across gender and socioeconomic standing are mainly a result of inequality resulting from social and economic health determinants. As such the social, cultural, economic, political, ethnic, gender and environmental factors are just as important as the biological factors when attempting to find solutions or devise strategies to combat disease. Consequently, linking both the biomedical sciences with the social sciences in our approaches to public health is critically important. Incorporating integrated, cross-disciplinary and multi-scalar approaches may allow for better comprehension of disease dynamics and produce more effective intervention strategies. The papers in this volume highlight the social science aspects of HIV/AIDS and emphasize that solutions based on the natural sciences alone are inadequate to stem the tide. AIDS in Africa represents a crucial arena where there is a need for the natural and social sciences to come together, join forces, and effectively tackle this disease. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    309702

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Mozambique. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Mozambique has over one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.3 million as of the end of 2003). Although Mozambique's prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is lower than some of the hardest hit countries in the region, it is higher than the sub-Saharan African region overall and recent estimates suggest that the prevalence rate may be on the rise. The epidemic poses significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Mozambique formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) in 2000, and is currently operating its National Strategic Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    309711

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zimbabwe has almost two million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (1.8 million as of the end of 2003), representing the third largest HIV/AIDS burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) in Zimbabwe is among the highest in the world, although recent evidence suggests that prevalence may be starting to decline. The epidemic continues to pose significant development challenges to this low-income country, which faces additional complications including drought conditions, substantial internal migration and displacement, and other factors that exacerbate the epidemic's impact. The Government of Zimbabwe established a National AIDS Coordination Programme (NACP) in 1987. In 2000, the Government formed the National AIDS Council (NAC), and is currently developing its National AIDS Strategic Framework for 2005-2009. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    309710

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Zambia. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Zambia has almost one million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (920,000 as of the end of 2003). Zambia's HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) is twice the rate in sub-Saharan Africa overall and the epidemic continues to pose one of the most significant development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Zambia established a National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in 1986. In 2000, the Government formed a National AIDS Council (NAC) and is currently implementing its National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Implementation Plan for 2002-2005. (excerpt)
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    309709

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in Uganda. HIV / AIDS policy fact sheet.

    Kates J; Leggoe AW

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005 Oct. [2] p. (HIV / AIDS Policy Fact Sheet)

    Uganda has more than a half million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS (530,000 as of the end of 2003). The country of Uganda is widely considered to be an HIV/AIDS success story, having reduced its HIV prevalence rate (the percent of people living with the disease) significantly over time, from one of the most severe epidemics in the 1980s, with a peak in the early-1990s, to a rate lower than that of the sub-Saharan African region overall. However, the epidemic has already had a significant impact in Uganda, and continues to pose development challenges to this low-income country. The Government of Uganda established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) in 1986, the first HIV/AIDS control program in the region. In 1992, the Government formed the Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC), and is currently operating its National Strategic Framework for 2000/2001-2005/2006. (excerpt)
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