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Clinics In Perinatology. 2010 Dec; 37(4):765-76, viii.The World Health Organization's Strategic Approaches to the Prevention of HIV Infection in Infants includes 4 components: primary prevention of HIV-1 infection; prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-1-infected women; prevention of transmission of HIV-1 infection from mothers to children; and provision of ongoing support, care, and treatment to HIV-1-infected women and their families. This review focuses on antiretrovirals for secondary prevention of HIV-1 infection-prevention of HIV-1 transmission from an HIV-1-infected woman to her child. Antiretroviral strategies to prevent the mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in nonbreastfeeding populations comprise antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1-infected pregnant women needing antiretrovirals for their own health, antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-1-infected pregnant women not yet meeting criteria for treatment, and antiretroviral prophylaxis for infants of HIV-1-infected mothers. The review primarily addresses antiretroviral strategies for nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1-infected women and their infants in resource-rich settings, such as the United States. Antiretroviral strategies to prevent antepartum, intrapartum, and early postnatal transmission in resource-poor settings are also addressed, albeit more briefly. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.