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  1. 1

    [Technical cooperation of PAHO / WHO in the traditional midwives program] Cooperación técnica de OPS / OMS al programa de parteras tradicionales.

    Gutiérrez Trucios D; Sotelo Figueiredo JM

    In: La partera tradicional en la atención materno infantil en México, [compiled by] Mexico. Secretaría de Salud. Programa Nacional de Parteras Tradicionales. Mexico City, Mexico, Secretaría de Salud, Programa Nacional de Parteras Traditionales, 1994. 137-145.

    Mexico is one of the pioneering countries with the most experience in the work of traditional midwives, not only in the Latin American region, but throughout the world. Formal activities were initiated in 1937 and were mainly focused on training. To date, the institutions authorized to train traditional midwives in the country (the Secretariat of Health, the National Indigenous Institute, and the Mexican Social Security Institute) have registered approximately 24,000 midwives, of which 75% are trained. During this period, many strategies developed in Mexico have been disseminated and adopted by other countries in the region. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The Vatican and population policy: a chronology.

    Catholics for a Free Choice

    In: The Pope and population policy, [compiled by] Catholics for a Free Choice. Washington, D.C., Catholics for a Free Choice, [1994]. [4] p.

    The pope is trying to control the language of a draft Program of Action for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The ICPD document, a blueprint for a 20-year campaign to stabilize world population, differs from its predecessors in that it links population growth with reproductive rights and urges family planning and the advancement of women's health and equality. These efforts are directly contrary to the Vatican's extremely conservative policies on population and the role of women, and explain why the Vatican has given such unprecedented attention to the Cairo conference in recent months. However, Vatican intervention in population policies is not new. This paper documents Vatican efforts to control population debate from 1961 to 1994.
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  3. 3

    [The antecedents of the Cairo conference] Les antecedents de la conference du Caire.

    Tabah L

    European Journal of Population. 1994; 10(4):349-80.

    The five international population conferences that began with the 1927 conference in Geneva are described and their deliberations analyzed to provide context for the upcoming International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The demographic problem at the time of the Geneva conference was posed entirely in European terms, with proponents of the individual freedom to limit fertility pitted against those fearing fertility decline and denatality, especially in France. Between the 1954 conference in Rome and the 1965 conference in Belgrade, concern increased over rapid population growth, accelerated urbanization, Third World development problems, and the progress of contraceptive usage. The analyses of the 1974 conference in Bucharest and the 1984 conference in Mexico City provide greater detail on the preparations for the conferences, the follow-up activities, the political issues and debates, the strategies employed, and the influence of contemporary issues and events such as the New World Economic Order and the growth of the environmental movement. Issues likely to be emphasized at the Cairo conference are then identified and discussed. It is to be hoped that greater international consensus will be achieved on the relationship between population and development and the need for international cooperation in population activities.
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  4. 4

    The first 40 years.

    FORUM. 1994 Jun; 10(1):36-41.

    1994 marks the 40th anniversary of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Western Hemisphere Region (WHR). At its inception, the WHR had only 4 family planning (FP) associations (FPAs) outside of the US (in Jamaica, Barbados, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico). The WHR was unique among the 6 regions of the IPPF in that it was registered as a non-profit agency in New York and was organized with an independent Board of Directors. Early advocates of FP had to operate in a legal climate which held that promoting contraception would promote immorality. As social legitimization forced a change in the laws, scientific advancements made ever more reliable contraception methods available. The goal of the WHR from the start was to bring FP to Latin America. In 1960, a breakthrough made by the University of Chile in the collection of statistics about the incidence of illegal abortion confirmed the worst suspicions of the medical establishment. Further research in Uruguay revealed that the women of Montevideo had 3 abortions for every live birth. While the medical establishment wondered how to provide contraceptive services on a large enough scale to combat this problem in Catholic countries, Ofelia Mendoza, a staff member of the WHR, visited Dr. Hermogenes Alvarez in Uruguay to offer him the financial and moral support of the IPPF. Dr. Alvarez then opened the first IPPF affiliate in all of South America in 1961, even though he had to resign his position as Dean of the Medical School to do so. Ms. Mendoza also took the IPPF message to Chile where Dr. Benjamin Viel established the Chilean Association for Family Protection in 1962. In Chile, the government agreed to provide contraceptive services if the FPA provided information and education to support the program. Soon FPAs were established throughout Latin America. As governments changed, FPAs were closed in Argentina and Peru and later reopened. In Peru, Dr. Miguel Ramos was jailed briefly for defying a government order to cease offering services. Since all of the countries, except Chile, had laws which would obviate the FPAs, they kept a low profile and depended on word-of-mouth promotion of their activities. However, by 1970, PROFAMILIA, in Colombia, began to adopt aggressive promotion tactics. PROFAMILIA began a national radio advertising campaign which made the clinic in Bogota the busiest in the world. In order to reach distant populations, PROFAMILIA recruited and trained community-based distributors (CBDs) to sell contraceptives and make medical referrals. Then they applied the tactic to the urban slums. By 1972, BEMFAM in Brazil was enlisting the cooperation of states and municipalities in its programs. It set up the largest CBD system in the world. This tradition of innovation spread throughout the region. Today, the second regional director, Dr. Hernan Sanhueza, oversees a region which provides half of the FP services delivered worldwide by a third of the number of FPAs in the world. The challenge faced by the WHR today is to expand its donor base. Those who wish to see an excellent model of North-South integration can find it in the WHR of the IPPF.
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  5. 5

    [The World Conferences on Population] Les Conferences mondiales sur la population.

    Tabah L

    Population et Societes. 1994 May; (290):1-3.

    The first international population conference was organized in 1927 by the League of Nations, and led to creation of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. At the time, the concept of family planning as an exercise of individual freedom was controversial in countries such as France which were intent on raising their low birth rates. After the war, the UN created a Population Commission and a Population Division for demographic study. The first director general of UNESCO, Julian Huxley, recommended that each country develop a population policy to be integrated into a world policy. His proposed World Population Conference finally was held in Rome in 1954. It was a conference of experts, not of government representatives, but the debates were as much political and ideological as scientific. The concept of population explosion was at the time replacing the notion of overpopulation. In 1962, Sweden announced that it would include family planning in the population programs it financed. The willingness of the UN to respond to all requests for population and family planning assistance was announced at the 1965 World Population Conference in Belgrade. The idea that rapid population growth had negative effects on economic development was becoming prominent. In December 1966, twelve heads of government signed a Population Declaration affirming the right of couples to knowledge and means of family planning. The UN Fund for Population Activities was created; its annual budget has grown from $5 million in 1969 to $240 million at present. The 1974 World Population Conference at Bucharest was a meeting of governments and not of experts. The Plan of Action finally adopted declared demographic variables to be dependent on development and social justice. Fertility regulation was related to family welfare and contraception to maternal and child health, female education, and regulation of age at marriage. The Bucharest Conference legitimized the concept of population policies. By the 1994 World Population Conference in Mexico City, a deceleration of demographic growth was occurring in many countries due to the combined effects of economic progress and family planning programs. The gap between countries better integrated into the world economic system and those especially in sub-Saharan Africa that were failing to achieve integration was widening. The European countries began calling attention to their own population problems of aging, low fertility, and international migration. Abortion was debated but did not appear in the final conference document. The eighty-eight recommendations were adopted by acclamation. The upcoming 1994 Cairo Conference, like the Bucharest and Mexico City conferences, was preceded by expert meetings and regional conferences. The proposed World Population Plan of Action is more elaborate than its predecessors, and the range of problems to be addressed is daunting. The Cairo Conference will have been useful if it advances international cooperation even slightly.
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