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[Research centers and the teaching of demography] Centri di ricerca e di insegnamento della demographia.
In: Demographie: analyse et synthese. Causes et consequences des evolutions demographiques, Volume 1. Rome, Italy, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, 1997 Sep. 291-310.Various international institutions of demography have played a leading role in research over the years including the Population Division of the UN, the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, and the Comite International de Cooperation dans les Recherches Nationales in Demographie. Demographic research dates back to the work of J.P. Suessmilch in the 18th century, who first systematized such figures, and it reached its maturity in the second half of the 19th century, when the first International Congress of Demography was held in Paris in 1878, at which the term demography (coined in 1855 by A. Guillard) was officially accepted. In 1927, the separation of demography from statistics was demonstrated on an international level by the first World Population Conference held in Geneva. Margaret Sanger conceived the idea of the conference declaring that unchecked population growth could profoundly alter human civilization. In 1928, the International Union for the Scientific Investigation of Population was founded affirming the autonomy of demography. Population Index was founded in 1933, followed by various national demographic journals. Demography, the present organ of the Population Association of America, was founded in 1964, and Population and Development Review in 1974. After the second World War, a period of impasse set in, but during the 1950s and 1960s academic studies flourished, especially those preoccupying politicians and the public: the low fertility in the UK and France, international migration in the US, and above all, the growth of global population, primarily in the Third World. Intervention programs were formulated by specialized UN organizations (FAO, UNESCO, UNFPA) whose activities continue in conjunction with the research efforts of over 600 research centers worldwide.