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  1. 1
    333061

    Action on the social determinants of health: learning from previous experiences.

    Irwin A; Scali E

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2010. [52] p. (Discussion Paper Series on Social Determinants of Health No. 1)

    Today an unprecedented opportunity exists to improve health in some of the world's poorest and most vulnerable communities by tackling the root causes of disease and health inequalities. The most powerful of these causes are the social conditions in which people live and work, referred to as the social determinants of health (SDH). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) shape the current global development agenda. The MDGs recognize the interdependence of health and social conditions and present an opportunity to promote health policies that tackle the social roots of unfair and avoidable human suffering. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is poised for leadership in this process. To reach its objectives, however, the CSDH must learn from the history of previous attempts to spur action on SDH. This paper pursues three questions: (1) Why didn't previous efforts to promote health policies on social determinants succeed? (2) Why do we think the CSDH can do better? (3) What can the Commission learn from previous experiences -- negative and positive -- that can increase its chances for success? (Excerpt)
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  2. 2
    184556

    Thirty years of global population changes.

    Caldwell JC

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.

    In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    128436

    The United Nations and Rwanda, 1993-1996.

    United Nations. Department of Public Information

    New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. of Public Information, 1996. [4], 739 p. (United Nations Blue Books Series, Vol. 10)

    Part 1 of the first section of this book on the UN involvement in Rwanda during the period 1993-96 opens with an overview that is followed in part 2 by provision of background information on Rwanda's colonial period, the role of the UN in supporting Rwandan independence, the domination of ethnic rivalries in Rwanda's social and political life, and the deteriorating conditions in the early 1990s that led the government and opposition forces to initiate peace talks. Part 3 traces the UN involvement in these negotiations that led to a peace agreement and the creation of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to help implement this agreement. The fourth part describes the efforts of the UN and others to maintain the momentum of the peace process, and part 5 chronicles the resumption of civil conflict in 1994, including the massacre of Rwandan civilians, attempts by the UN to negotiate a cease-fire, and the decision that led the Security Council to reduce the size of UNAMIR and then to deploy UNAMIR II. Part 6 relates the massive migration of refugees from the fighting, the lengthy delays in deploying UNAMIR II, and the decision to authorize deployment of a French-led, multinational intervention. Part 7 discusses efforts to address the violations of humanitarian law, and part 8 details the humanitarian response to the emergency. The ninth part looks at the precarious situation of Rwandan refugees, the militarization of the refugee camps in Zaire, and efforts to create conditions that would encourage repatriation of refugees. Part 10 considers the final stages of the UN peace-keeping mission, the future role of the UN in Rwanda, and efforts of the UN to promote reconciliation and national reconstruction. Part 11 offers conclusions about the UN experience. Section 2 of the book provides a chronology of events and reprints relevant documents.
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  4. 4
    074132

    Reproductive health: a key to a brighter future. Biennial report 1990-1991. Special 20th anniversary issue.

    Khanna J; Van Look PF; Griffin PD

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1992. xiii, 171 p.

    WHO established its Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction in 1972 to promote, coordinate, conduct, and evaluate research in human reproduction in both developed and developing countries. Its aim is to assist developing countries meet the reproductive health needs of their populations. The first section of the biennial report discusses the reproductive health status in the world including fertility regulation, sexual health, infertility, and safe motherhood since 1972. Despite considerable progress in the last 20 years, unmet needs remain substantial. New environmental concerns related to population growth and maternal and child health concerns, women's status, and human development all dictate a sense of urgency. The second section covers specific activities of the Programme in the last 20 years. It includes the results of an external evaluation of the effect the Programme has had. It found the Programme's effect to be most successful due to its collaborating centers and multicenter trials and studies, epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratory scientists. This section also includes viewpoints from China, Kenya, and Mexico. 2 former directors of the Programme present a historical account of the Programme's accomplishments. The third section discusses progress the Programme had made during 1990-91. It specifically covers development and assessment of fertility regulation technologies, prevention of infertility, improving family planning choices through systematic introduction and proper management of contraceptive methods, epidemiologic research, social measurements of reproductive health, and improving capacity for key national reproductive health research.
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