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Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):141-163.World demographic growth at the time of the Rome Conference in 1954 was characterized by unprecedented high rates of natural increase. This was the consequence of the combined effect of faster declines in death rates and sustained high birth rates. As a result, world population would double from three to six billion between 1960 and 1999 and from 5 to 6 billion in just 12 years (1987-1999), while it had taken the world four times as much to double from 1.5 to 3 billion and nearly a millennium to reach the first billion. What triggered this growth were primarily unprecedented mortality declines, a better control of major killer diseases and increases in survival particularly in the developing countries (life expectancy increased from 41 to 65 years on average over the last three decades). With such unprecedented growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the late 1950s to raise a serious concern about the impact of current and projected growth rates both within countries and internationally at the economic, social and geopolitical levels. This theory would soon become the driving force behind all population policy objectives aimed at third world countries where governments were encouraged to formulate population policies, establish policy institutions and programme structures to implement family planning programmes, bring about smaller-sized families and help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. (excerpt)
Journal of Sex Research. 2002 Feb; 39(1): p..We are at a unique juncture in history and have a rare opportunity to develop global, national, and community strategies to promote sexual health for the new century. This opportunity has been created by the fact that the world is experiencing a new sexual revolution and a public health imperative. Much like the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, it is a revolution fueled by incredible scientific advances, as well as dramatic social and economic change. We also face a myriad of sexual health problems, which is creating an enormous burden on societies. These two factors are putting pressure on health ministries to develop comprehensive approaches to sexual health promotion. The last major attempt at developing global strategies for promoting sexual health was fueled by the previous sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. In 1975, the World Health Organization (WHO) produced a document Education and Treatment in Human Sexuality: The Training of Health Professionals. This historic document called upon societies around the world to develop the necessary sexuality education, counseling, and therapy to promote sexual health and to provide the necessary training for health professionals. This document also served as a stimulus for the development of the field of sexology and sexual resources centers throughout the world. (excerpt)
British Medical Bulletin. 2003; 67:13-25.The health of mothers has long been acknowledged to be a cornerstone of public health and attention to unacceptably high level of maternal mortality has been a feature of global health and development discussions since the 1980s. However, although a few countries have made remarkable progress in recent years, the reality has not generally followed the rhetoric. Health and development partners have failed to invest seriously in safe motherhood and examples of large-scale and sustained programmes are rare. Safe motherhood has tended to be seen as a subset of other programmes such as child survival or reproductive health and is often perceived to be too complex or costly for under-resourced and over-stretched health care systems that have limited capacity. Despite this, a consensus has emerged about the interventions needed to reduce maternal mortality and there are good examples (historical and contemporary) of what can be achieved within a relatively short time period. The activities of both grassroots organizations and international health and development agencies have helped to build political will and momentum. Further progress in improving maternal health will require outspoken and determined champions from within the health system and the medical community, particularly the obstetricians and gynaecologists, and from among decision-makers and politicians. But in addition, substantial and long-term funding—by governments and by donor agencies—is an essential and still missing component. (author's)
The road to global reproductive health. Reproductive health and rights on the international agenda, 1968-2003.
[London, England], EuroNGOs, Better Communication Project, 2003. 19 p.The right to access family planning and safe motherhood and protection against sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS, should be available to all women, men and adolescents worldwide. Unfortunately these reproductive health rights do not come about automatically. Nor do they occur naturally with social or economic development. Governments do not spontaneously include these vital health rights and measures in their spending plans, even though there is a wealth of evidence to support the economic, social, health and human rights rationale in doing so. The most powerful tool to cut across opposition and to create a global mainstream movement for action is to have it enshrined within a United Nations (UN) declaration or programme of action. The UN is the one global body that represents the voice of nations and commands the respect of governments worldwide. Many of the economic and social transformations that have taken place globally in the last five decades have been significantly affected in their direction and shape by the work of the UN. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 47-80.This chapter explains the various mechanisms for fostering compliance with different rights relating to reproductive and sexual health, and explores programming options for fostering such compliance. The chapter is not exhaustive, but exploratory; recognizing that much more discussion is needed to address this issue adequately. (excerpt)
Fertility and Sterility. 2003 Jul; 80(1):1-15.Objective: To give an historical record of the research of the World Health Organization (WHO) Task Force to develop methods of male contraception; to examine the social, political, medical, pharmaceutical, funding, and other factors that influenced progress; and to suggest reasons why such methods are only now becoming available. Design: Review of basic and clinical research over 30 years. Setting: Task force of a multinational agency and collaborating agencies. Conclusion(s): Through the involvement of many international scientists, the WHO Task Force has uniquely contributed to the exploratory phases of the research in male contraception and by its multicenter contraceptive efficacy studies has accelerated progress towards the ideal hormonal method. Despite an adverse climate involving social and political attitudes, funding constraints, and pharmaceutical industry hesitations, WHO formed coalitions with governments and international agencies to sustain research with results that apply to men in culturally diverse populations and thereby to influence activities across the whole range of global reproductive health and family planning. (author's)
[From family planning to reproductive health and beyond. Draft] De la planificacion familiar a la salud reproductiva y mas alla. Borrador para libro.
[Unpublished] 1997 Mar. 155,  p.This work traces the evolving orientation of institutional family planning at the international level, from the beginning of the birth control movement in the US around 1915 to the recent consensus that family planning should be considered in the broader framework of reproductive health. The opening chapter discusses the origins of the antinatalist movement in the birth control, eugenics, and population control movements and the beginning of US government involvement in family planning. Family planning and its objectives are defined, and the growing view of family planning as a right is discussed in chapter 2. The pressures and achievements of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, which led to a broadening of the focus to encompass issues of development, are assessed. The impact of the environmental movement and the international decade of women, and the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and its consequences for family planning are discussed. The attitudes expressed at the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico City and the decline of US support for international family planning activities are then examined. Beginning around the mid-1980s, a series of shortcomings in family planning programs were noted at the same time that worldwide survey programs demonstrated impressive gains in family planning in developing countries. The gathering movement for reproductive health was embraced by foundations, and reflected in changes of emphasis in the most important international organizations. The focus on reproductive health prevailed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, but doubts have arisen since then over the future of support for family planning and other reproductive health services.
American Journal of Public Health. 1999 Mar; 89(3):399-407.Despite conceptual advances that incorporate broad structural approaches, international agencies embrace a persistent reliance on "reductionist reproductive terms" to define women's health. This article locates the origins of this phenomenon in the policies and activities of the Rockefeller Foundation's (RF) public health program in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. After an introduction, the article describes the Mexican work of the RF and how it "stumbled upon" gender health differentials during a hookworm eradication campaign and then furthered gender stereotypes in its health education materials. The article continues with a consideration of the RF's eventual dual targeting of women as patients and as public health workers (nurses) during the effort to create permanent health units and institute a system of nurses who visited homes as proponents of the supremacy of modern medicine. Next, the article describes how the RF further entered women's domain by identifying, monitoring, and training traditional midwives. This targeting of midwives coupled with a total disregard for every aspect of traditional midwifery reflected the RF's policy of blaming midwives for infant mortality while ignoring socioeconomic determinants. The policy also exacerbated the differentials of social class by elevated working- and middle-class nurses and denigrating peasant midwives. The article concludes that the RF's faulty and often ineffectual policies in Mexico created the women's health paradigm based on reproduction that was later intensified by population control efforts and that fails to advance health for all as a matter of equity.
SEXUAL HEALTH EXCHANGE. 1998; (3):4.Two decades of Family Planning Association of Hong Kong (FPAHK) advocacy of husband-wife communication and cooperation in family planning led Hong Kong's population to finally accept the notion of male responsibility in family planning. Recent surveys have documented high rates of male contraceptive use. The FPAHK established its first clinic to provide men with birth control advice and services in 1960, then set up a vasectomy clinic and installed condom vending machines. Working against prevailing traditional beliefs that childbearing is the exclusive domain of women and that vasectomy harms one's health, the FPAHK began campaigns to motivate men to take a positive and active role in family planning and to correct misinformation on vasectomy. Successful FPAHK efforts to stimulate male support for family planning include the 1977 "Mr. Family Planning" campaign, the 1982 "Family Planning - Male Responsibilities" campaign, and the 1986-87 "Mr. Able" campaign. Although these campaigns ended in the 1980s, men may now be counseled on contraception at 3 of the 8 FPAHK-run birth control clinics.
Tokyo, Japan, Asian Population and Development Association, 1996 Dec. 33 p. (APDA Resource Series 2)This paper presents an overview of the distinguishing features of the 20th century by focusing on the decades between the first and third World Population Conferences (1974-94). The essay opens with a prologue which describes the increasing concern about population growth which served as the background to the development of the progressive World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in 1974 and presents current population projections and annual growth rate data. The next topic is the adoption of the WPPA, with its last minute attention to family planning programs, at the Bucharest Conference. This is followed by consideration of the "Bucharest effect" which included reversals by China and India which led to their adoption of new policies to control growth. Discussion of the "quiet gathering" at Mexico City which adopted recommendations to further implement the WPPA in 1984 is augmented with a look at the ripple caused by the denial of the US delegation of the possibility of achieving demographic goals before achieving economic development. The three global upheavals experienced in the 20th century after the watershed of World War II are then identified as the world population explosion, the destruction of the global environment, and the conflicts which followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. The ensuing discussion then considers the three most important aspects of the world population crisis: the population growth rate, the size of the annual increases, and total global population. Finally, the paper looks at the Fourth International Conference on Population and Development during which the WPPA became a Programme of Action which embraced a revolutionary strategy calling for the empowerment of women to achieve population stability and development, emphasizing reproductive health care, and establishing targets to reduce death rates. The essay concludes by calling for a revolution in thinking to derive ways to cope with the upcoming 30 years of rapid population growth.
Reproductive health: a key to a brighter future. Biennial report 1990-1991. Special 20th anniversary issue.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1992. xiii, 171 p.WHO established its Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction in 1972 to promote, coordinate, conduct, and evaluate research in human reproduction in both developed and developing countries. Its aim is to assist developing countries meet the reproductive health needs of their populations. The first section of the biennial report discusses the reproductive health status in the world including fertility regulation, sexual health, infertility, and safe motherhood since 1972. Despite considerable progress in the last 20 years, unmet needs remain substantial. New environmental concerns related to population growth and maternal and child health concerns, women's status, and human development all dictate a sense of urgency. The second section covers specific activities of the Programme in the last 20 years. It includes the results of an external evaluation of the effect the Programme has had. It found the Programme's effect to be most successful due to its collaborating centers and multicenter trials and studies, epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratory scientists. This section also includes viewpoints from China, Kenya, and Mexico. 2 former directors of the Programme present a historical account of the Programme's accomplishments. The third section discusses progress the Programme had made during 1990-91. It specifically covers development and assessment of fertility regulation technologies, prevention of infertility, improving family planning choices through systematic introduction and proper management of contraceptive methods, epidemiologic research, social measurements of reproductive health, and improving capacity for key national reproductive health research.