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In: Country studies on strategic management in population programmes, edited by Ellen Sattar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 1989 May. 1-23. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series Vol. 8)Brazil has a population of 144 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. Brazil also has the highest economic disparity rate in the world, with 65% of the population living below the poverty line. Despite some degree of governmental acceptance of family planning, the government does not have the resources to support an effective program, and it is therefore up to nongovernmental agencies to expand the population's access to family planning. BEMFAM, the Family Well-Being Civil Society, was founded in 1965 to stimulate the creation of a government family planning program. BEMFAM was affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1967 and was granted recognition as a public utility in 1971. BEMFAM's 1st community program was in Rio Grande do Norte, and it was shortly extended to other northeastern states. As a result of political leadership seminars held by BEMFAM in 1980 and 1981, state legislators took the lead in creating the Representatives Group for Population and Development Studies with the goal of integrating state legislatures to implement a national family planning program. Due to BEMFAM's influence, the northeast is the 1 region where people expect to get contraceptives from government health centers. BEMFAM's work is concentrated in 4 areas: studies and surveys; information, education, and communication; training; and service delivery. According to the results of the Brazil Demographic and Health Survey carried out in 1986, 99% of women know of at least 1 contraceptive method, but only 43% use one. The most used method is female sterilization, followed by the pill (28% and 25% respectively). Brazil's new constitution designates family planning as a basic human right. BEMFAM will implement 6 strategies to increase the level of family planning in Brazil. 1) It will act to influence political leaders to improve family planning programs. 2) It will spread information and knowledge about family planning to the community at large. 3) It will train health professionals in family planning. 4) It will assist government agencies and private programs to maintain standards of service. 5) It will conduct studies and carry out research related to family planning, health, and development. 6) It will continually upgrade its own staff and facilities. BEMFAM has prioritized its efforts according to location, need, and sustainability of the programs.
Report of the Executive Director on the policy implications of the findings and conclusions of the UNFPA's review and assessment of population programme experience.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1989 Apr. 14. 25 p. (DP/1989/37; A/E/BD/1)This 20 year review and assessment of UNFPA's population experience and operations. 3 major areas focusses on: 1) population data, policy development and planning; 2) maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP); 3) and information, education and communication. Even though 82% of the developing world's population live in countries where current rates of population growth are considered too high; where 84% live in countries were fertility rates are considered too high; where 91% live in countries where levels of life expectancy are too low and where close to 90% live in countries where population patterns of distribution are unacceptable, most of the governments have not been able to implement population policies effectively. There is an urgent need for more rigorous population interventions in the future by developing clear and achievable goals, activities to improve program effectiveness and mobilization of required resources for the 1990's at national and international levels. UNFPA's 4 major population program goals for the 1990's are: 1) development of comprehensive population policies to help achieve sustainable development; 2) decelaration of rapid population growth through the expansion of information, education and services for FP; 3) lowering the current levels of infant, child and maternal mortality rates; and 4) improvement of the role, status and participation of women. Means to success include obtaining political commitment; introducing strategic planning and programming; diversifying the agents for demographic change; and strengthening resource mobilization. The international donor community must raise the amount and quality of assistance provided and improve donor cooperation and collaboration.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):139-45.The Population Commission guided the development of specific population programs at the regional level in the mid-1950s, introduced progressively in the developing regions: Asia and the Pacific; Latin America and the Caribbean; Africa; and Western Asia. Their approaches were 1) The staffing of the regional commission secretariats with demographers to carry out demographic research relevant to the respective region; and 2) the development of regional training centers to build up technical personnel to assist Governments and institutions in analyzing demographic aspects of development problems in each region. The regional secretariats have helped incorporate population requests into studies and research carried out on regional and country-level development issues, through its own regional studies; the organization of seminars; and emphasis of the population element in policy formulation and development. Each secretariat has concentrated, under regional commission guidance, on crucial regional population problems. While the Economic Commission for Africa emphasizes data collection and analysis, the Asia and the Pacific Region concerns have been largely in population policy formulation. The Latin America and the Caribbean regional program stresses technical assistance in demographic training, research and dissemination of information, whereas the Western Asia program stresses demographic data collection and analysis. The depth and scope of these regional programs has depended on the changing state of demographic development. UN regional training centers: the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) at Bombay, India (1951); the Latin American Demographic Center (CELADE) at Santiago, Chile (1958); the Cairo Demographic Centre (1962); the Regional Institute for Population Studies at Accra, Ghana; and the Institut de Recherche Demographique (IFORD) at Yaounde, Cameroon (1971); have provided population training programs, and trained nearly 2,000 specialists. Training and research has moved in the population and development direction.
London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.