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  1. 1

    Four decades of evolution: the IPPF story.

    Dennis F

    PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):7-10.

    This article traces the evolution of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), from its inception to its present period of self-appraisal. The IPPF was born in bombay in 1952 through the efforts of such noted activists as Margaret Sanger, Elise Ottensen-Jensen, Shidzue Kato, and Dhanvanthi Rama Rau. From the beginning, 2 controversial currents of thought influenced the evolution of IPPF: the idea that uncontrolled fertility was demeaning and dangerous to women's health and that of their children, and the view that world population was exploding beyond the earth's carrying capacity. It became one of IPPF's most demanding challenges to balance these 2 views. From the beginning, IPPF's most important role became advocacy -- advocacy of family planning as a human right, of sex education for responsible parenthood, of choice about pregnancy, family size and contraceptive methods, and of the need to control population. an opportune development, IPPF's inception coincided with a remarkable growth in modern contraceptive technology. the IUD had been rediscovered, and Gregory Pincus was only 2 years away from his trial of the first oral contraceptive. Early on IPPF took an active role in promoting contraceptive research. By the late 1960s, IPPF had become the leading international authority on family planning, while its tradition had become firmly rooted in the local Family Planning Associations (FPAs). By 1967, IPPF counted on 40 member FPAs from as many countries, and through substantial private fund raising and grants, the federation had gained long-term financial security. The article goes on to describe the leadership styles of the IPPF's secretary generals. Despite the organization's obvious success, the article poses the question of whether IPPF has become outdated.
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  2. 2

    BEMFAM's population strategies.

    Schiavo MR

    In: Country studies on strategic management in population programmes, edited by Ellen Sattar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 1989 May. 1-23. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series Vol. 8)

    Brazil has a population of 144 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. Brazil also has the highest economic disparity rate in the world, with 65% of the population living below the poverty line. Despite some degree of governmental acceptance of family planning, the government does not have the resources to support an effective program, and it is therefore up to nongovernmental agencies to expand the population's access to family planning. BEMFAM, the Family Well-Being Civil Society, was founded in 1965 to stimulate the creation of a government family planning program. BEMFAM was affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1967 and was granted recognition as a public utility in 1971. BEMFAM's 1st community program was in Rio Grande do Norte, and it was shortly extended to other northeastern states. As a result of political leadership seminars held by BEMFAM in 1980 and 1981, state legislators took the lead in creating the Representatives Group for Population and Development Studies with the goal of integrating state legislatures to implement a national family planning program. Due to BEMFAM's influence, the northeast is the 1 region where people expect to get contraceptives from government health centers. BEMFAM's work is concentrated in 4 areas: studies and surveys; information, education, and communication; training; and service delivery. According to the results of the Brazil Demographic and Health Survey carried out in 1986, 99% of women know of at least 1 contraceptive method, but only 43% use one. The most used method is female sterilization, followed by the pill (28% and 25% respectively). Brazil's new constitution designates family planning as a basic human right. BEMFAM will implement 6 strategies to increase the level of family planning in Brazil. 1) It will act to influence political leaders to improve family planning programs. 2) It will spread information and knowledge about family planning to the community at large. 3) It will train health professionals in family planning. 4) It will assist government agencies and private programs to maintain standards of service. 5) It will conduct studies and carry out research related to family planning, health, and development. 6) It will continually upgrade its own staff and facilities. BEMFAM has prioritized its efforts according to location, need, and sustainability of the programs.
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  3. 3

    NGO strategies in Malaysia.

    Ng Khoon Fong T

    In: Country studies on strategic management in population programmes, edited by Ellen Sattar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 1989 May. 62-72. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series Vol. 8)

    Malaysia is a country of 15.8 million people, composed mainly of Malays, Chinese, and Indians. General health conditions are relatively good; the crude death rate is 5.3, the infant mortality rate is 17.5, and the maternal mortality rate is 0.4. Family planning began with the establishment of the Family Planning Service of the Family Planning Association in Slangor state in 1953. The Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaya, was established from the union of several state associations in 1957. The Federation became a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1961. In the early 1970s family planning was integrated into the Maternal and Child Health Services of the Ministry of Health, and the National Family Planning Program of Malaysia was implemented by the National Family Planning Board, the Ministry of Health, and the Federation. In 1984, the government announced its new population policy with the goal of 70 million people by 2100. To attain this goal, the fertility rate must decline by 0.1 point every 5 years. This is actually a slower rate of decrease than that advocated by the National Family Planning Program in 1966, a point which has caused great misunderstanding about the national population policy among the public. As a result, the Federation of Family Planning Associations of Malaysia has altered its strategy to emphasize family planning service delivery, education, and women's health. The new strategy is called the Community Extension Family Planning Programme. The Federation is now the only nongovernmental agency active in the national family planning program. The Federation now has 3 major strategies: 1) to increase the number of family planning acceptors; 2) to provide family life education and disseminate information among young people, eligible couples, and community leaders; and 3) to promote the status of women. Surveys have shown the 99% of married women are aware of at least 1 method of contraception, but only 30% of women use a effective method. The government, however, has deemphasized family planning in favor of economic development, and the Islamic fundamentalists oppose all forms of family planning.
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  4. 4

    Maternal and child health and family planning programmes [sectoral paper].

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 126 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. II)

    UNFPA has published a comprehensive document on the state of the art of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) worldwide. This paper mostly focuses on family planning because that is UNFPA's mandate, but since MCH/FP services are often delivered in an integrated fashion the recommendations and strategies for the management and administration of FP in this paper can also apply to MCH services. This document is a practical and useful historical analysis that traces past, current and future trends in family planning. It discusses issues and strategies, controversies, conflicts, advantages and disadvantages of population/FP issues by region and between developed and developing countries. The reader gets a comprehensive overview in MCH/FP during the past 3 decades. Major conferences, policies and events focusing on MCH/FP issues are interwoven into the multiple factors involved in FP practice and future needs. There are 9 chapters and 14 tables of valuable data. The chapters include: 1) Introduction; 2) Current FP practice and future needs in developed and developing countries; 3) Macro-environmental factors affecting provision of services; 4) Approaches to service delivery in the public and private sectors; 5) Current and future contraceptive technology; 6) Strategic issues; 7) Administrative issues; 8) Special challenges; and 9) Future priorities.
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