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  1. 1

    Family planning and the World Bank in Jamaica.

    King T

    In: The global family planning revolution: three decades of population policies and programs, edited by Warren C. Robinson and John A. Ross. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 155-174.

    In Jamaica, as in many countries, the pioneers of family planning were men and women who sought to improve the well-being of their impoverished women compatriots, and who perhaps were also conscious of the social threats of rapid population growth. When, eventually, population control became national policy, the relationship between the initial private programs and the national effort did not always evolve smoothly, as the Jamaican experience shows (see box 10.1 for a timeline of the main events in relation to family planning in Jamaica). A related question was whether the family planning program should be a vertical one, that is, with a staff directed toward a sole objective, or whether it should be integrated within the public health service. These issues were not unique to Jamaica, but in one respect Jamaica was distinctive: it was the setting for the World Bank's first loan for family planning activities. Family planning programs entailed public expenditures that were quite different from the infrastructure investments for which almost all Bank loans had been made, and the design and appraisal of a loan for family planning that did not violate the principles that governed Bank lending at the time required a series of decisions at the highest levels of the Bank. These decisions shaped World Bank population lending for several years and subjected the Bank to a good deal of external criticism. For that reason, this chapter focuses on the process of making this loan. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The road to global reproductive health. Reproductive health and rights on the international agenda, 1968-2003.

    Perrow F

    [London, England], EuroNGOs, Better Communication Project, 2003. 19 p.

    The right to access family planning and safe motherhood and protection against sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS, should be available to all women, men and adolescents worldwide. Unfortunately these reproductive health rights do not come about automatically. Nor do they occur naturally with social or economic development. Governments do not spontaneously include these vital health rights and measures in their spending plans, even though there is a wealth of evidence to support the economic, social, health and human rights rationale in doing so. The most powerful tool to cut across opposition and to create a global mainstream movement for action is to have it enshrined within a United Nations (UN) declaration or programme of action. The UN is the one global body that represents the voice of nations and commands the respect of governments worldwide. Many of the economic and social transformations that have taken place globally in the last five decades have been significantly affected in their direction and shape by the work of the UN. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The Cairo imperative: how ICPD forged a new population agenda for the coming decades.

    Sai FT

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 113-135.

    The remarkable originality and achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, have sometimes been disregarded in the years since. Most fair-minded people acknowledge that ICPD succeeded in its main aims. But for those of us who participated in earlier population conferences and in the preparations for Cairo, it can be said to have succeeded beyond our wildest dreams -- in terms of its intent and programmatic content at least. In addition, it helped mobilize the population, health, women's rights and allied communities to shape a broad agenda for the population and related development fields for the next two decades. Of the three international conferences organized by the United Nations to help build world consensus on the need to address population issues, ICPD was by far the most successful, measured by numbers attending, levels and quality of delegates, international media attention, and the quality of the final consensus -- and an important watershed. After long preparation and vigorous debate, more than 180 countries agreed to adopt the 16-chapter ICPD Programme of Action. The 115-page document outlines a 20-year plan to promote sustainable, human-centred development and a stable population, framing the issues with broad principles and specific actions. The Cairo Programme of Action was not simply an updating of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), agreed to at Bucharest and revised at Mexico City, but an entirely fresh and original programme, calling for a major shift in strategies away from demographic goals and towards more individual human welfare and development ones. ICPD was the largest intergovernmental conference on population ever held: 11,000 representatives from governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and intergovernmental agencies participated, 4,000 NGOs held a parallel forum, and there was unprecedented media attention. ICPD was not just a single event, but an entire process culminating in the Cairo meeting. There were six expert group meetings, and regional conferences in Bali, Dakar, Geneva, Amman and Mexico City. There were many formal and informal NGO meetings and three official Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meetings. Other crucial influences came from the 1987 Safe Motherhood Conference, the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, and the 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights. (author's)
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  4. 4

    UNFPA and the global conferences.

    Singh JS

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 152-174.

    This document outlines the UNFPA's stance and involvement – financially and politically – in global conferences including those focusing on women (Mexico City, 1975; Copenhagen, 1980; Nairobi, 1985; and Beijing, 1995), and other issues related to the world’s population.
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  5. 5

    [Trends in European family planning programs] Tendenzen der Familienplanungsarbeit in Europa.

    Heinrichs J

    PRO FAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1992 Sep-Oct; (5):4-5.

    Organized family planning work as it is known today is quite new, although the means and methods of conscious targeting of reproductive behavior are as old as human society. In all societies the regulation of the number of birth has been a central issue. The transition from predominantly agrarian to industrial economic system has also transformed the structure of the family and its role as the location of the reproduction of the labor force. Scientific and medical research as well as the struggle of women for equality and their increasing participation in the work force and thereby their changing position in the family have all played a major role. Reproductive behavior has often been subjected to population policy goals, thus it was not surprising that Nazi Germany suppressed every attempt to introduce family planning. In the 1950s and 1960s privately organized family planning associations were established in many developing countries with the objective of reducing the rapidly increasing birth rate. As a result, even today the International Planned Parenthood Federation debates the issue of identification of family planning with birth control. In specific cases the counseling offered is restricted to problems in the use of contraceptives, undesired infertility, sexuality and partnership, and sterilization. In addition, it is necessary to provide counseling on psychosocial issues and to discuss issues in small groups. Counseling sites have to be established that use these techniques, as practiced for years by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in the European region, which has set up task forces to study how segments of the population can be reached. The established family planning organizations have been concerned with unwanted pregnancy and its prevention, unwanted infertility, sex education for all age groups, marriage counseling, and therapy. Accordingly, emancipatory family planning work has been undertaken in 20 European countries.
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  6. 6

    [International transmission of population policy experience in Sub-Saharan Africa] Transmission internationale en Afrique Sub-Saharienne de l'experience en matiere de politique de population.

    Sala-Diakanda M

    In: International transmission of population policy experience. Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the International Transmission of Population Policy Experience, New York City, 27-30 June 1988, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 116-29. (ST/ESA/SER.R/108)

    A significant change of direction in matters of population policy occurred between the 1974 World Population conference in Bucharest, when most African countries argued that their populations were insufficient and that growth should be encouraged, and the 1984 adoption of the Program of Action of Kilimanjaro, which indicated the interest of African countries in limiting population growth. This work examines international influences on the formulation and implementation of family planning policies and programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Interest in African demography in the early 20th century reflected the need for information on the newly colonized populations. Demographic knowledge and attitudes toward population questions were strongly influenced by the dominant attitudes in the colonial powers. Countries colonized by Great Britain had a longer tradition of census taking and more liberal legislation on contraception and sterilization; these countries tended to become interested in family planning at an earlier date than countries colonized by France or other powers. After independence, interest in African demography was due almost exclusively to the region's unprecedented population growth. With the creation of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, programs to aid developing countries at their request in implementing population training and research and information and consultative services were given a significant boost. The major project of the UNFPA in its 1st 10 years was to improve mechanisms of data collection and analysis in Africa, especially through the "African census program". The UNFPA financed the expansion of the Statistics and Population Divisions of the Economic Commission for Africa in order to assist the census program. Almost simultaneously, training programs were developed to increase demographic competencies within Africa. The UNFPA financed 2 regional centers in Ghana and Cameroon for demographic training and research. The 2 centers have trained over 500 high level demographers who are employed in various national services, most often planning ministries. The World Population Conference at Bucharest was influential in bringing population questions into the open in Africa. The resulting program to monitor population trends and policies of member countries had a great impact on African countries. The UNFPA encouraged African states to develop structures for formulation and implementation of population policies and programs integrated into their general development strategies. Family planning programs in the region have primarily been seen as tools for improving maternal and child health. The International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and other nongovernmental organizations have been active in demographic research and provision of family planning services. A major challenge for africa will be to guarantee satisfaction of the basic needs of its peoples so that large families need no longer be seen as sources of security.
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  7. 7

    BEMFAM's population strategies.

    Schiavo MR

    In: Country studies on strategic management in population programmes, edited by Ellen Sattar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 1989 May. 1-23. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series Vol. 8)

    Brazil has a population of 144 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. Brazil also has the highest economic disparity rate in the world, with 65% of the population living below the poverty line. Despite some degree of governmental acceptance of family planning, the government does not have the resources to support an effective program, and it is therefore up to nongovernmental agencies to expand the population's access to family planning. BEMFAM, the Family Well-Being Civil Society, was founded in 1965 to stimulate the creation of a government family planning program. BEMFAM was affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1967 and was granted recognition as a public utility in 1971. BEMFAM's 1st community program was in Rio Grande do Norte, and it was shortly extended to other northeastern states. As a result of political leadership seminars held by BEMFAM in 1980 and 1981, state legislators took the lead in creating the Representatives Group for Population and Development Studies with the goal of integrating state legislatures to implement a national family planning program. Due to BEMFAM's influence, the northeast is the 1 region where people expect to get contraceptives from government health centers. BEMFAM's work is concentrated in 4 areas: studies and surveys; information, education, and communication; training; and service delivery. According to the results of the Brazil Demographic and Health Survey carried out in 1986, 99% of women know of at least 1 contraceptive method, but only 43% use one. The most used method is female sterilization, followed by the pill (28% and 25% respectively). Brazil's new constitution designates family planning as a basic human right. BEMFAM will implement 6 strategies to increase the level of family planning in Brazil. 1) It will act to influence political leaders to improve family planning programs. 2) It will spread information and knowledge about family planning to the community at large. 3) It will train health professionals in family planning. 4) It will assist government agencies and private programs to maintain standards of service. 5) It will conduct studies and carry out research related to family planning, health, and development. 6) It will continually upgrade its own staff and facilities. BEMFAM has prioritized its efforts according to location, need, and sustainability of the programs.
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  8. 8

    Maternal and child health and family planning programmes [sectoral paper].

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 126 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. II)

    UNFPA has published a comprehensive document on the state of the art of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) worldwide. This paper mostly focuses on family planning because that is UNFPA's mandate, but since MCH/FP services are often delivered in an integrated fashion the recommendations and strategies for the management and administration of FP in this paper can also apply to MCH services. This document is a practical and useful historical analysis that traces past, current and future trends in family planning. It discusses issues and strategies, controversies, conflicts, advantages and disadvantages of population/FP issues by region and between developed and developing countries. The reader gets a comprehensive overview in MCH/FP during the past 3 decades. Major conferences, policies and events focusing on MCH/FP issues are interwoven into the multiple factors involved in FP practice and future needs. There are 9 chapters and 14 tables of valuable data. The chapters include: 1) Introduction; 2) Current FP practice and future needs in developed and developing countries; 3) Macro-environmental factors affecting provision of services; 4) Approaches to service delivery in the public and private sectors; 5) Current and future contraceptive technology; 6) Strategic issues; 7) Administrative issues; 8) Special challenges; and 9) Future priorities.
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  9. 9

    The U.S. international family planning program: under siege.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]

    New York, New York, PPFA, 1987. 16 p.

    This brochure published by the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, (PPFA) tells the story of the dismemberment of the U.S. international family planning policy from 1961 to 1987. Official family planning policy began in the U.S. in 1961 with Kennedy's endorsement of contraceptive research. In 1968 Congress first allotted foreign aid funds for family planning. By 1973, the tide turned with Helms' amendment to the foreign assistance act prohibiting use of funds to support abortion. In 1983, USAID cut funds for the prestigious journal International Planning Perspectives, because the agency's review board chairman objected to an article on health damage of illegal abortion and mention of legal abortion. It took a court ruling to restore funds. In the same year, the Pathfinder Fund was pressured to accept the U.S. policy articulated in 1984 as the "Mexico City Policy." This ideology states that the U.S. would no longer support any program that performs, advocates, refers or counsels women about abortion, even if those activities are legal and funded by non-U.S. sources. Next, USAID pulled support from the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The U.S. has multiplied support for natural family planning 10-fold to $8 million, and permitted organizations to counsel clients in this method without offering conventional alternatives. In 1986, the U.S. dropped support for the U.N. Fund for Population Activities, claiming alleged Chinese compulsory abortions as a reason. The PPFA has sued for a reversal of the policy of withholding USAID funds from FPIA, the international division of PPFA. The main arguments are presented, along with a list of typical FPIA projects.
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