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  1. 1

    History and background.

    Carballo M

    In: Sexual behaviour and AIDS in the developing world, edited by John Cleland and Benoit Ferry. London, England, Taylor and Francis, 1995. 1-9. (Social Aspects of AIDS)

    When the Special Program on AIDS of the World Health Organization (WHO), later to become the Global Program on AIDS (GPA), formally came into being in January 1987, the following main areas of activity were proposed: the mobilization of interest and resources, the provision of collaborative support to national action, and the promotion of global research and interventions. These areas of interest reflected what were seen as the main international needs at the time. As the levels of activity within these areas grew, the global research component was further broken down and units focusing upon social and behavioral research, biomedical research, epidemiology and surveillance, and health promotion were established. Until that point, much of the research which had been done on AIDS had been mainly in the biomedical domain. Six years into the pandemic, there remained a dearth of systematically gathered information on the psychosocial factors affecting HIV transmission and what implications they might have for society and public health in general. With regard to the establishment of the WHO's Global Program on AIDS (GPA) Social and Behavioral Research Unit, the author discusses the development of activities, methodology, regional organization, and technical and financial support.
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  2. 2

    The diffusion of a population-related innovation: the Planned Parenthood affiliate.


    Columbis, Ohio, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, (1977). (Studies in the Diffusion of Innovation Discussion Paper No. 37) 24 p

    The supply side of family planning spread in the U.S. is studied by examination of the diffusion of Planned Parenthood affiliates in this country. This diffusion is an example of nonprofit-motivated polynuclear diffusion with central propagator support. Such diffusion was key to increasing availability of and information regarding family planning services. The temporal pattern of the diffusion followed the process outlined: high growth from 1916-1939, very slow growth from 1940-1960, and high growth from 1961-1973. This process was initiated in response to birth rate changes and other social events, governmental initiative, and organizational changes within the central propagator. The diffusion spread from the largest cities to surrounding communities, and from north and east to west and south. The number of women in the 15-44 age group and the number of these women ever-married were 2 specific variables of importance in the spread; median family income and median school years completed for the 3rd organizational period were variables of importance in the organizing capacity of the diffusion.
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  3. 3


    Heckler MM

    In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C., edited by Richard Cash. Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development [AID], Bureau for Science and Technology, 1983. 4-5. (International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, 1983, proceedings)

    The Honorable Margaret Heckler, secretary of Health and Human Services, presents the goal of the conference--discussion of the remarkable potential of oral rehydration therapy and its importance to the health of infants and children throughout the world. The conference celebrates the scientific advances of recent years that give new hope for millions of children every year. Over 500 million episodes of diarrhea afflict infants in developing countries each year; each year, some 5 million children lose their lives to these diseases. In Europe, and in North America as well, diarrhea is the 6th most common cause of death among small children. At the turn of the century, mortality due to cholera was 60%. A scientist in Calcutta and 1 in Manila developed methods of intravenous therapy that reduced mortality dramatically to 20%. Treatment of the disease remained relatively unchanged until the middle of the century when work in Egypt and Asia resulted in a therapy method that reduced mortality for cholera to less than 1%. The crucial discovery of an effective cholera agent occurred in India in 1959. In 1962, scientists in Manila established the vital role of oral glucose in the absorption of sodium and water. The large-scale use of oral rehydration therapy was demonstrated in Dhaka and Calcutta in the 1960s, when 100s of cholera cases were managed under field conditions during a rural epidemic. A massive epidemic during a refugee crisis in 1971 was well-coped with by the Johns Hopkins group in Calcutta by treating 3700 patients over an 8-week period. This was one of the 1st large-scale uses of prepackaged materials for oral hydration, costing only US$750. In Dhaka and Calcutta in the early 1970s the critical discovery that noncholera diarrheal diseases could be treated with the oral rehydration therapy developed for cholera was made. The discovery of the role of glucose in accelerating the absorption of salt and water was underscored in the British journal "Lancet" as being potentially the most important medical advance of this century. A strong coalition of interest exists between governments and scientists of many nations as well as the international organizations to promote oral rehydration therapy. WHO, UNICEF, USAID and other agencies are playing an extremely important part in discovering how oral rehydration therapy can best be incorporated into broader health services, and how to prevent diarrheal diseases from occurring.
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