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For the public good. A history of the Birth Control Clinic and the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Hamilton, Canada, W.L. Griffin, 1974. 35,  p.The history of the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada has been prepared to recognize the fact that the Society is the oldest of its kind in Canada. It is approaching its 50th Anniversary, and it still plays a prominent role in Hamilton as well as being one of the founding members of the Family Planning Federation of Canada. The Federation is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The Society was founded by Mary Elizabeth Hawkins with the help of Albert R. Kaufman. Mr. Kaufman alleviated the plight of wives of the unemployed who were having unwanted children. The constitution of the Society had 2 parts: (1) "to establish and maintain a birth control clinic in Hamilton where free instruction will be given to married women in cases where there are definite physical or mental disabilities in order that the public good may be served." (2) "To educate the public as to the true aims of the birth control movement and its beneficial effect upon the race." In 1932 Mrs. Hawkins and Miss Burgar went to the Wentworth County Court House in Hamilton to talk to the Crown Attorney Ballard about the legality of operating their clinic. At the time the Criminal Code had prohibitions against "every one having for sale or disposal any means of instructions or any medicine, drug or article intended or represented as a means of preventing contraception." The result of the meeting was a letter from George Ballard that openly supported their activities and wished them success. The early days were the hardest because of a lack of money, most of which came from the founding members. There was also a great deal of opposition from the local community. However, it was the work of Society that helped make contraception legal in Canada today.
Population at the United Nations: programs in search of a policy. (Population Planning Working Paper No. 6.)
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New York City, April 18-20, 1974. Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Department of Population Planning, School of Public Health, 1974. 39 pUN programs which have been most successful have been those which are not politically controversial; those which fall primarily within the jurisdiction of a single UN agency; and those which do not entail in their application any major organizational change or alteration of social values. Unfortunately, these ingredients are missing in population. Fertility reduction programs evoke intense political reactions. Rather than population fitting neatly within the exclusive purview of WHO, it necessitates an organizational contribution from FAO, ILO, UNESCO, the UN, UNICEF, and the World Bank. The technologies involved in population control require major organizational adaptation if they are to be effectively delivered to the populations for whom they are intended, and they are incompatible with the values of large segments of the societies in which they are employed. The agencies differ from one another in their mandates and areas of concern, their forms of governance, their organizational ideologies, their budgets and sources of funds, and their degree of emphasis on technical assistance and field activities. There is much more diversity and pluralism among UN agencies than is generally recognized. It is concluded that if the UN is to be successful in applying different strategies of population assistance, it may have to learn to capitalize on its pluralism and minimize the negative consequences.