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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
In: Indonesia's urban infrastructure development experience: critical lessons of good practice, edited by Hendropranoto Suselo, John L. Taylor and Emiel A. Wegelin. [Nairobi, Kenya], United Nations Centre for Human Settlements [HABITAT], 1995. 174-85.This monograph chapter discusses the historical experience of the UNCHS in providing technical support to the government of Indonesia's Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Program (IUIDP). Technical cooperation began in 1978, when a national urban development strategy (NUDS) was adopted and implemented during 1978-85 by the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works and the Directorate General of Human Settlements. IUIDP included a national strategy for urban development through the year 2000. NUDS was intended to be flexible and change with conditions. It was understood that effective management and development of cities and towns would be a major challenge over time. Its success or failure would affect national objectives more than spatial demographic changes. NUDS recognized the importance of local government responsibility for urban development and service delivery and the role of the private sector, community groups, and individuals in planning, developing, and operating urban infrastructure and services. Financing would rely on local revenue generation. Agencies operated as enterprises. The focus was on increasing institutional resources for operations and maintenance, on improving existing built-up areas, and on shifting emphasis to service delivery. Integrated investment programs by sector would be needed locally. The need was to strengthen existing institutions and processes. In 1989, the program was expanded with the hindsight that effective intergovernmental and interdepartmental coordination was required. A management group was established to this end. Despite the over ambitiousness of the Project Document, seven important outcomes did occur.
POPULATION GEOGRAPHY. 1989 Jun-Dec; 11(1-2):86-96.This paper surveys the contributions of the International Geographic Union (IGU) and the International Cartographic Association (ICA) to the field of population studies over the past 3 decades. Reviewing the various focal themes of conferences sponsored by the organizations since the 1960s, the author examines the evolution of population studies in IGU and ICA. During the 1960s, IGU began holding symposia addressing the issue of population pressure on the physical and social resource in developing countries. However, it wasn't until 1972, at a meeting in Edmonton, Canada, when IGU first addressed the issue of migration. But since then, migration has remained on the the key concerns of IGU. In 1978, the union hosted a symposium on Population Redistribution in Africa -- the first in a series of conferences focusing on the issue of migration. As an outgrowth of migration, the IGU also began addressing the related issue of population education. The interest in migration has continued through the 1980s. In addition to studies of regional migration, the IGU has also focused on conceptual issues such as migrant labor, environmental concerns, women and migration, and urbanization. In 1984, IGU began cooperating with ICA in the areas of census cartography and population cartography. The author concludes his review of IGU and ICA activities by discussing the emerging trends in population studies. The author foresees a more refined study of migration and more sophisticated population mapping, the result of better study techniques and the use of computer technology.