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PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):7-10.This article traces the evolution of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), from its inception to its present period of self-appraisal. The IPPF was born in bombay in 1952 through the efforts of such noted activists as Margaret Sanger, Elise Ottensen-Jensen, Shidzue Kato, and Dhanvanthi Rama Rau. From the beginning, 2 controversial currents of thought influenced the evolution of IPPF: the idea that uncontrolled fertility was demeaning and dangerous to women's health and that of their children, and the view that world population was exploding beyond the earth's carrying capacity. It became one of IPPF's most demanding challenges to balance these 2 views. From the beginning, IPPF's most important role became advocacy -- advocacy of family planning as a human right, of sex education for responsible parenthood, of choice about pregnancy, family size and contraceptive methods, and of the need to control population. an opportune development, IPPF's inception coincided with a remarkable growth in modern contraceptive technology. the IUD had been rediscovered, and Gregory Pincus was only 2 years away from his trial of the first oral contraceptive. Early on IPPF took an active role in promoting contraceptive research. By the late 1960s, IPPF had become the leading international authority on family planning, while its tradition had become firmly rooted in the local Family Planning Associations (FPAs). By 1967, IPPF counted on 40 member FPAs from as many countries, and through substantial private fund raising and grants, the federation had gained long-term financial security. The article goes on to describe the leadership styles of the IPPF's secretary generals. Despite the organization's obvious success, the article poses the question of whether IPPF has become outdated.
In: International transmission of population policy experience. Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the International Transmission of Population Policy Experience, New York City, 27-30 June 1988, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 167-83. (ST/ESA/SER.R/108)Tracing the evolution of population policies at the international level from 1965-present, the authors look beyond official policy statements and examine the practical politics of population policy. The authors argue that in addition to long-term demographic and economic processes, population policy has been shaped by the changes in the distribution of global power and influence. The paper divides the evolution of population policy into 3 stages: the population control approach (1965- 74); the population planning approach (1974-81); and the competitive pluralism in population policy approaches (1981-present). The 1st stage of population policy was led by a several groups that had organized themselves into a population control coalition. Dominated by the US, this coalition looked at population growth in developing countries as a global threat, and actively pursued population policies to limit rapid population growth by means of family planning. The 2nd phase moved away from the population control ideology, adopting a population planning approach that saw population growth as more of a local problem affecting the development of individual nations. This phase saw an increase in the distribution of power. And the 3rd and current phase has been marked by an even greater distribution of power, as more groups have become involved in population policy. At the same time that transnational coalitions have assumed greater influence, the scope of conflict over population policy issues has widened. Because population policy has been linked to political and ideological considerations, the authors note that those wishing to improve the quality of decision- making will be more effective if they possess a good understanding of the changing political and organizational environment.
Metuchen, New Jersey, Scarecrow Press, 1986. xvii, 211 p.This bibliography provides a chronological listing of works by and about Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement from 1911 to 1966, and an author listing of works published after Sanger's death in 1966, through 1984. Brief descriptions exist for many of the 1300 citations. Only works available in public and academic libraries in the US are included; locations of Margaret Sanger collections are also listed. (ANNOTATION)
London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.
Columbis, Ohio, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, (1977). (Studies in the Diffusion of Innovation Discussion Paper No. 37) 24 pThe supply side of family planning spread in the U.S. is studied by examination of the diffusion of Planned Parenthood affiliates in this country. This diffusion is an example of nonprofit-motivated polynuclear diffusion with central propagator support. Such diffusion was key to increasing availability of and information regarding family planning services. The temporal pattern of the diffusion followed the process outlined: high growth from 1916-1939, very slow growth from 1940-1960, and high growth from 1961-1973. This process was initiated in response to birth rate changes and other social events, governmental initiative, and organizational changes within the central propagator. The diffusion spread from the largest cities to surrounding communities, and from north and east to west and south. The number of women in the 15-44 age group and the number of these women ever-married were 2 specific variables of importance in the spread; median family income and median school years completed for the 3rd organizational period were variables of importance in the organizing capacity of the diffusion.