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East Asian Science, Technology and Society. 2016 Dec; 10(4):445-467.This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (FS-15-136; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This executive summary introduces the full report (See POPLINE record 337627) examining the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (SR-15-118C; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. El Salvador has made enormous progress in terms of family planning over the past five decades. It has reduced fertility rates; it has developed a robust legal and regulatory framework for FP; it has allocated resources for procuring contraceptives for its population; it now offers information and contraceptive services to the entire population of the country with the active participation of civil society organizations, especially women’s organizations.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (SR-15-118F; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Nicaragua has made significant progress in improving its macro-level primary health care indicators, reducing maternal mortality and increasing contraceptive prevalence. There has also been increased participation by the Instituto Nicaragense de Seguridad Social (INSS) in providing family planning services and commodities, thus reducing the burden on health ministry facilities. The government has shown its strong commitment to comprehensive services to improve the health of the population.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (SR-15-118H; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. The family planning movement in Haiti began in the 1960s, only a short time after family planning activities had been initiated in many other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Initially, doctors and demographers worked together to encourage government policies around the issue and to begin private sector service provision programs in much the same way early family planning activities occurred elsewhere. Yet, in comparison with other countries within the region, Haiti’s progress on reproductive health has been slow.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (SR-15-118A; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Family planning has become so deeply entrenched as a social norm in Colombia that it no longer constitutes the special area of interest that it did in the 1960s and 1970s. Nonetheless, challenges remain.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (TR-15-101; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This report examines the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. The current contraceptive prevalence rate (all methods) of 74 percent is among the highest of any region in the developing world. Many factors have contributed to the dramatic decline in fertility in the LAC region over the past 50 years: increased educational levels, improved economic conditions, decreased infant and child mortality, rapid urbanization, political stability, and changing cultural norms, among others. While recognizing the influence of these factors on fertility, what role did use of family planning play in fertility decline in the region? What lessons can be drawn for other developing countries committed to a development path that strengthens family planning services and improves health and living standards for their people? This report examines the specific role of family planning in accelerating fertility decline in the LAC region.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
Evolution of national population policies since the United Nations 1954 World Population Conference.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):297-328.Population policy did not figure prominently at the 1954 United Nations World Population Conference in Rome. It was a commonly held view at the time that "population matters" were in the personal and family sphere and thus, not an appropriate area of involvement for Governments. Nevertheless, some discussion took place on policies to reduce population growth in less developed regions, on policies to raise fertility in more developed regions, on the impact of population ageing and on the consequences of international migration for sending and receiving countries. This paper tracks Government's views and policies on population and development since the 1954 Rome Conference. Among other things, it considers the central role played by United Nations global population conferences in facilitating international cooperation and national government entrance into embracing population policies. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):141-163.World demographic growth at the time of the Rome Conference in 1954 was characterized by unprecedented high rates of natural increase. This was the consequence of the combined effect of faster declines in death rates and sustained high birth rates. As a result, world population would double from three to six billion between 1960 and 1999 and from 5 to 6 billion in just 12 years (1987-1999), while it had taken the world four times as much to double from 1.5 to 3 billion and nearly a millennium to reach the first billion. What triggered this growth were primarily unprecedented mortality declines, a better control of major killer diseases and increases in survival particularly in the developing countries (life expectancy increased from 41 to 65 years on average over the last three decades). With such unprecedented growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the late 1950s to raise a serious concern about the impact of current and projected growth rates both within countries and internationally at the economic, social and geopolitical levels. This theory would soon become the driving force behind all population policy objectives aimed at third world countries where governments were encouraged to formulate population policies, establish policy institutions and programme structures to implement family planning programmes, bring about smaller-sized families and help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 152-174.This document outlines the UNFPA's stance and involvement – financially and politically – in global conferences including those focusing on women (Mexico City, 1975; Copenhagen, 1980; Nairobi, 1985; and Beijing, 1995), and other issues related to the world’s population.
SEXUAL HEALTH EXCHANGE. 1998; (3):4.Two decades of Family Planning Association of Hong Kong (FPAHK) advocacy of husband-wife communication and cooperation in family planning led Hong Kong's population to finally accept the notion of male responsibility in family planning. Recent surveys have documented high rates of male contraceptive use. The FPAHK established its first clinic to provide men with birth control advice and services in 1960, then set up a vasectomy clinic and installed condom vending machines. Working against prevailing traditional beliefs that childbearing is the exclusive domain of women and that vasectomy harms one's health, the FPAHK began campaigns to motivate men to take a positive and active role in family planning and to correct misinformation on vasectomy. Successful FPAHK efforts to stimulate male support for family planning include the 1977 "Mr. Family Planning" campaign, the 1982 "Family Planning - Male Responsibilities" campaign, and the 1986-87 "Mr. Able" campaign. Although these campaigns ended in the 1980s, men may now be counseled on contraception at 3 of the 8 FPAHK-run birth control clinics.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES. 1997; 27(3):523-40.This article draws largely on the work of Linda Gordon's "Woman's Body, Woman's Right" and of Bonnie Mass's "Population Target" to analyze the history of the birth control movement and trace the elements present in current debate to their origins in the conflicts and contradictions of the movement's history. After noting that humans have attempted to control births since ancient times, the article begins with the efforts of English radical neo-Malthusians to promote birth control and continues by sketching the change in emphasis from poverty reduction to women's rights. By the 20th century in the US, changing views of sexuality and working-class militancy ignited the US birth control movement and inspired the work of Margaret Sanger. After Sanger split with social radicals, professionals and eugenicists began to play a major role in population control efforts. Eugenicists and racists attempted to use birth control for social engineering; it was to be used again as a tool in a new era of social planning after World War II when it metamorphosized into "family planning." The US need for the resources of developing countries led to concerns about population growth fueling nationalistic fires. Thus, private agencies began a postwar population control effort in developing countries. This received official US approval with the 1958 report of the Draper Committee that targeted world population growth as a US security issue. In 1966, Dr. Ravenhold led the US Agency for International Development into the population field. Population control efforts garnered international opposition at the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974, however, but this had little impact on the strong US commitment to population control.
For the public good. A history of the Birth Control Clinic and the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Hamilton, Canada, W.L. Griffin, 1974. 35,  p.The history of the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada has been prepared to recognize the fact that the Society is the oldest of its kind in Canada. It is approaching its 50th Anniversary, and it still plays a prominent role in Hamilton as well as being one of the founding members of the Family Planning Federation of Canada. The Federation is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The Society was founded by Mary Elizabeth Hawkins with the help of Albert R. Kaufman. Mr. Kaufman alleviated the plight of wives of the unemployed who were having unwanted children. The constitution of the Society had 2 parts: (1) "to establish and maintain a birth control clinic in Hamilton where free instruction will be given to married women in cases where there are definite physical or mental disabilities in order that the public good may be served." (2) "To educate the public as to the true aims of the birth control movement and its beneficial effect upon the race." In 1932 Mrs. Hawkins and Miss Burgar went to the Wentworth County Court House in Hamilton to talk to the Crown Attorney Ballard about the legality of operating their clinic. At the time the Criminal Code had prohibitions against "every one having for sale or disposal any means of instructions or any medicine, drug or article intended or represented as a means of preventing contraception." The result of the meeting was a letter from George Ballard that openly supported their activities and wished them success. The early days were the hardest because of a lack of money, most of which came from the founding members. There was also a great deal of opposition from the local community. However, it was the work of Society that helped make contraception legal in Canada today.
[Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 126 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. II)UNFPA has published a comprehensive document on the state of the art of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) worldwide. This paper mostly focuses on family planning because that is UNFPA's mandate, but since MCH/FP services are often delivered in an integrated fashion the recommendations and strategies for the management and administration of FP in this paper can also apply to MCH services. This document is a practical and useful historical analysis that traces past, current and future trends in family planning. It discusses issues and strategies, controversies, conflicts, advantages and disadvantages of population/FP issues by region and between developed and developing countries. The reader gets a comprehensive overview in MCH/FP during the past 3 decades. Major conferences, policies and events focusing on MCH/FP issues are interwoven into the multiple factors involved in FP practice and future needs. There are 9 chapters and 14 tables of valuable data. The chapters include: 1) Introduction; 2) Current FP practice and future needs in developed and developing countries; 3) Macro-environmental factors affecting provision of services; 4) Approaches to service delivery in the public and private sectors; 5) Current and future contraceptive technology; 6) Strategic issues; 7) Administrative issues; 8) Special challenges; and 9) Future priorities.
Metuchen, New Jersey, Scarecrow Press, 1986. xvii, 211 p.This bibliography provides a chronological listing of works by and about Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement from 1911 to 1966, and an author listing of works published after Sanger's death in 1966, through 1984. Brief descriptions exist for many of the 1300 citations. Only works available in public and academic libraries in the US are included; locations of Margaret Sanger collections are also listed. (ANNOTATION)
London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.
World population and the United States: the development of an idea, statement made at the United States in the World International Conference, Washington, D.C. 28 September 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 20 p.A history of United States attitudes toward population problems is presented. In 1954, it seemed that the UN and its agencies were precluded from involvement in population action programs. In the US, the battles of Margaret Sanger and Abraham Stone were still fresh in the memory. The forces that would change this situation were already at work. American demographers, economists and campaigners articulated them. At the World Population Conference that year papers presented by Americans were crucial. Abraham Stone presented a paper on new developments in contraception. It has been feared that any discussion of contraception at the Conference could prevent its success. By the early 1950s, anxiety had grown that the prophecies of Thomas Malthus were about to be realized. In some Asian countries, notably India, death rates combined with high birth rates had caused some concern for years. Biologists, economists, agriculturists, and sociologists were also concerned with the quality of life in the US. During the 50s, the considerable resources of the US research and development began to turn toward improvements in contraceptive methods. By the end of the decade, a viable contraceptive pill had been developed and tested, and the earliest IUD had been considerably improved. At the same time, means of improving the delivery of contraceptive services were sought. Marketing and promotion were applied to family planning campaigns. In 1965-66, the US government finally turned around on the population issue. A firmly established action program within the UN system did not end the controversy over the place of population in development. The women's movement in this country has coincided with heightened consciousness in the international community of the importance of women as agents rather than mere recipients.
London, England, IPPF, March 1979. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)This paper elaborates on significant events leading up to the foundation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1952, and its role in the world family planning movement. Mentioned are precursor organizations and pioneers in the field; these took the position that family planning is a human right and a social responsibility. IPPF has helped organize conferences on planned parenthood, consolidated its organizational structure, and helped to secure funding for its programs. This federation of indigenous national organizations relies on much volunteer support to carry out its programs; a significant amount of the programs are formulated in developing countries.
Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 1980 Jan-Jun; 3(1-2 Spec No):6-17.Traces the evolution of family planning as a human right under the United Nations system, with special reference to the General Assembly's resolution on population growth and economic development in 1962; the programs and priorities in population fields passed in 1965; the Secretary General's statement regarding the responsibility of the family, as the fundamental unit of society, for determining its size; the international conference in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of human rights, in 1968; the General Assembly declaration on social progress and development in 1969; and the World Population Plan of Action in 1974. The author concludes that the United Nations has taken a clear stand that it is a basic human right for couples to determine the number of their children and the consequent right to access to the relevant information and methods for implementing their decision. The author calls for a General Assembly declaration on human rights aspects of family planning. Such a declaration, while not legally binding on member states, would move the right to family planning toward legal obligation as an instance of "instant" custom, and pave the way to practical application by influencing the attitude of governments. (author's modified)
Population Bulletin. 1975; 30(6):1-32.Catholic teachings on human sexuality, love, and marriage are traced from the days of the early church to the present in section dealing with the papal perspective, traditional teachings, the phenomenon of birth control, the love ethic, a post-World War 2 reorientation of moral thinking as revealed in Vatican Council 2, the Papal Birth Control Commi ssion, and the Papal Encyclical, Humanae vitae, and reactions to the encyclical. The teachings are not seen as absolutes but as expressions of values which have shifted with the cultural patterns of the ages. The one area of strict prohibition has been a ban on artificial birth control, most recently upheld in the 1968 Humanae vitae, much to the con sternation of many laymen and clerics. While to many the edict may have seemed to fly in the face of the future by denying the use of artificial means of contraception, what it has done, in fact, is to awaken Catholics to the need to take personal and immediate responsibility for their sexual and other moral acts. Individuals should follow the dictates of their well-formed consciences rather than blindly follow the ir bishops and pastors. Papal intransigence on the issue of contraceptives, however, has forced Catholic thinkers and theologians to face the issue and work out a more realistic Catholic attitude toward population policies and birth control.