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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 113-135.The remarkable originality and achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, have sometimes been disregarded in the years since. Most fair-minded people acknowledge that ICPD succeeded in its main aims. But for those of us who participated in earlier population conferences and in the preparations for Cairo, it can be said to have succeeded beyond our wildest dreams -- in terms of its intent and programmatic content at least. In addition, it helped mobilize the population, health, women's rights and allied communities to shape a broad agenda for the population and related development fields for the next two decades. Of the three international conferences organized by the United Nations to help build world consensus on the need to address population issues, ICPD was by far the most successful, measured by numbers attending, levels and quality of delegates, international media attention, and the quality of the final consensus -- and an important watershed. After long preparation and vigorous debate, more than 180 countries agreed to adopt the 16-chapter ICPD Programme of Action. The 115-page document outlines a 20-year plan to promote sustainable, human-centred development and a stable population, framing the issues with broad principles and specific actions. The Cairo Programme of Action was not simply an updating of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), agreed to at Bucharest and revised at Mexico City, but an entirely fresh and original programme, calling for a major shift in strategies away from demographic goals and towards more individual human welfare and development ones. ICPD was the largest intergovernmental conference on population ever held: 11,000 representatives from governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and intergovernmental agencies participated, 4,000 NGOs held a parallel forum, and there was unprecedented media attention. ICPD was not just a single event, but an entire process culminating in the Cairo meeting. There were six expert group meetings, and regional conferences in Bali, Dakar, Geneva, Amman and Mexico City. There were many formal and informal NGO meetings and three official Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meetings. Other crucial influences came from the 1987 Safe Motherhood Conference, the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, and the 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 47-80.This chapter explains the various mechanisms for fostering compliance with different rights relating to reproductive and sexual health, and explores programming options for fostering such compliance. The chapter is not exhaustive, but exploratory; recognizing that much more discussion is needed to address this issue adequately. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 152-174.This document outlines the UNFPA's stance and involvement – financially and politically – in global conferences including those focusing on women (Mexico City, 1975; Copenhagen, 1980; Nairobi, 1985; and Beijing, 1995), and other issues related to the world’s population.
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
In: Indonesia's urban infrastructure development experience: critical lessons of good practice, edited by Hendropranoto Suselo, John L. Taylor and Emiel A. Wegelin. [Nairobi, Kenya], United Nations Centre for Human Settlements [HABITAT], 1995. 174-85.This monograph chapter discusses the historical experience of the UNCHS in providing technical support to the government of Indonesia's Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Program (IUIDP). Technical cooperation began in 1978, when a national urban development strategy (NUDS) was adopted and implemented during 1978-85 by the Indonesian Ministry of Public Works and the Directorate General of Human Settlements. IUIDP included a national strategy for urban development through the year 2000. NUDS was intended to be flexible and change with conditions. It was understood that effective management and development of cities and towns would be a major challenge over time. Its success or failure would affect national objectives more than spatial demographic changes. NUDS recognized the importance of local government responsibility for urban development and service delivery and the role of the private sector, community groups, and individuals in planning, developing, and operating urban infrastructure and services. Financing would rely on local revenue generation. Agencies operated as enterprises. The focus was on increasing institutional resources for operations and maintenance, on improving existing built-up areas, and on shifting emphasis to service delivery. Integrated investment programs by sector would be needed locally. The need was to strengthen existing institutions and processes. In 1989, the program was expanded with the hindsight that effective intergovernmental and interdepartmental coordination was required. A management group was established to this end. Despite the over ambitiousness of the Project Document, seven important outcomes did occur.
In: International transmission of population policy experience. Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the International Transmission of Population Policy Experience, New York City, 27-30 June 1988, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 167-83. (ST/ESA/SER.R/108)Tracing the evolution of population policies at the international level from 1965-present, the authors look beyond official policy statements and examine the practical politics of population policy. The authors argue that in addition to long-term demographic and economic processes, population policy has been shaped by the changes in the distribution of global power and influence. The paper divides the evolution of population policy into 3 stages: the population control approach (1965- 74); the population planning approach (1974-81); and the competitive pluralism in population policy approaches (1981-present). The 1st stage of population policy was led by a several groups that had organized themselves into a population control coalition. Dominated by the US, this coalition looked at population growth in developing countries as a global threat, and actively pursued population policies to limit rapid population growth by means of family planning. The 2nd phase moved away from the population control ideology, adopting a population planning approach that saw population growth as more of a local problem affecting the development of individual nations. This phase saw an increase in the distribution of power. And the 3rd and current phase has been marked by an even greater distribution of power, as more groups have become involved in population policy. At the same time that transnational coalitions have assumed greater influence, the scope of conflict over population policy issues has widened. Because population policy has been linked to political and ideological considerations, the authors note that those wishing to improve the quality of decision- making will be more effective if they possess a good understanding of the changing political and organizational environment.
Report of the Executive Director on the policy implications of the findings and conclusions of the UNFPA's review and assessment of population programme experience.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1989 Apr. 14. 25 p. (DP/1989/37; A/E/BD/1)This 20 year review and assessment of UNFPA's population experience and operations. 3 major areas focusses on: 1) population data, policy development and planning; 2) maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP); 3) and information, education and communication. Even though 82% of the developing world's population live in countries where current rates of population growth are considered too high; where 84% live in countries were fertility rates are considered too high; where 91% live in countries where levels of life expectancy are too low and where close to 90% live in countries where population patterns of distribution are unacceptable, most of the governments have not been able to implement population policies effectively. There is an urgent need for more rigorous population interventions in the future by developing clear and achievable goals, activities to improve program effectiveness and mobilization of required resources for the 1990's at national and international levels. UNFPA's 4 major population program goals for the 1990's are: 1) development of comprehensive population policies to help achieve sustainable development; 2) decelaration of rapid population growth through the expansion of information, education and services for FP; 3) lowering the current levels of infant, child and maternal mortality rates; and 4) improvement of the role, status and participation of women. Means to success include obtaining political commitment; introducing strategic planning and programming; diversifying the agents for demographic change; and strengthening resource mobilization. The international donor community must raise the amount and quality of assistance provided and improve donor cooperation and collaboration.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):139-45.The Population Commission guided the development of specific population programs at the regional level in the mid-1950s, introduced progressively in the developing regions: Asia and the Pacific; Latin America and the Caribbean; Africa; and Western Asia. Their approaches were 1) The staffing of the regional commission secretariats with demographers to carry out demographic research relevant to the respective region; and 2) the development of regional training centers to build up technical personnel to assist Governments and institutions in analyzing demographic aspects of development problems in each region. The regional secretariats have helped incorporate population requests into studies and research carried out on regional and country-level development issues, through its own regional studies; the organization of seminars; and emphasis of the population element in policy formulation and development. Each secretariat has concentrated, under regional commission guidance, on crucial regional population problems. While the Economic Commission for Africa emphasizes data collection and analysis, the Asia and the Pacific Region concerns have been largely in population policy formulation. The Latin America and the Caribbean regional program stresses technical assistance in demographic training, research and dissemination of information, whereas the Western Asia program stresses demographic data collection and analysis. The depth and scope of these regional programs has depended on the changing state of demographic development. UN regional training centers: the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) at Bombay, India (1951); the Latin American Demographic Center (CELADE) at Santiago, Chile (1958); the Cairo Demographic Centre (1962); the Regional Institute for Population Studies at Accra, Ghana; and the Institut de Recherche Demographique (IFORD) at Yaounde, Cameroon (1971); have provided population training programs, and trained nearly 2,000 specialists. Training and research has moved in the population and development direction.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):129-38.The Population Commission was originally charged with providing information and advice to the Economic and Social Council on population trends and issues, not direct technical assistance to governments: the needed factual basis was lacking and technical assistance was not yet a major activity of the United Nation (UN). By the 1950s, a technical assistance program focusing on data collection and analytical studies had been adopted. The 1st assistance request in population policy and action programs came from the Indian Government in 1952, followed by requests from Indonesia, Thailand, and Brazil. In 1952 the 1st 2 UN-supported regional demographic centers were founded. After the 1960 censuses, the emphasis of UN technical assistance in the population field shifted from statistical activities and training to developing methods for dealing with population problems. The early 1960s saw confrontation on whether technical cooperation should be provided by the UN for population action programs. In 1965 a high-level UN expert group was sent to India to make recommendations for the national FP program, and an ad hoc expert group recommended to the Commission that the UN respond to requests for assistance on all aspects of population, including FP. In 1966 the General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution calling on the UN and its agencies to provide population technical assistance, and in 1967 the commission voted to give high priority to research and technical assistance in the fertility area. To finance this expanded role, the Secretary-General established, in 1967, a special UN Trust Fund for Population Activities, to be managed by the UN Secretariat. A Population Program and Projects Office was established in the Population Division and by 1969 Population Program Officers were stationed in developing countries to assess needs and assist in formulating population assistance requests. The assistance demang grew rapidly and the Fund reference terms were expanded, responsibililty for its administration being transferred to the UN Devleopment Program.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1985. 243 p.This report focuses on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development. While paying close attention to the events of the recent past, it also places the use of foreign capital in a broader and longer-term perspective. Using this perspective, the Report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international community has dealt with financial crises. A recurring theme of the Report is that countries in debt-servicing difficulties are not necessarily those with the largest debts or those that have suffered the biggest external shocks. The Report stresses that international flows of capital can promote global economic efficiency and can allow deficit countries to strike the right balance between reducing their deficits and financing them. A historical perspective on the role of international finance in economic development is presented, followed by an assessment of policies of industrial economies from the perspective of developing countries. The importance of developing countries' policies in deriving benefits from foreign capital is considered. Issues in managing capital flows are presented. The Report then discusses the main mechanisms through which foreign capital flows to developing countries. An overview of the international financial system and its relations with developing countries are presented. Issues in official development finance are examined. The evolving relationship between the developing countries and international capital markets is outlined. Possibilities for a bigger role for direct and portfolio investment in developing countries are examined. The Report concludes that the developing countries will have a continuing need for external finance. It demonstrates that many of the policies required to attract external finance and promote economic growth are either being implemented or planned already. A prosperous and stable world can become a reality if each country follows the route outlined.