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Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 2007 Summer; 81(2):407-430.Between 1947 and 1951 the Scandinavian-led International Tuberculosis Campaign tested more than 37 million children and adolescents for tuberculosis, and vaccinated more than 16 million with BCG vaccine. The campaign was an early example of an international health program, and it was generally seen as the largest medical campaign to date. It was born, however, as a Danish effort to create goodwill in war-ravaged Europe, and was extended outside Europe only because UNICEF in 1948 unexpectedly donated US $2 million specifically for BCG vaccination in areas outside Europe. As the campaign transformed from postwar relief to an international health program it was forced to make adaptations to different demographic, social, and cultural contexts. This created a tension between a scientific ideal of uniformity, on the one hand, and pragmatic flexibility on the other. Looking at the campaign in India, which was the most important non-European country in the campaign, this article analyzes three issues in more detail: the development of a simplified vaccination technique; the employment of lay-vaccinators; and whether the campaign in India was conceived as a short-term demonstration or a more extensive mass-vaccination effort. (author's)
The road to global reproductive health. Reproductive health and rights on the international agenda, 1968-2003.
[London, England], EuroNGOs, Better Communication Project, 2003. 19 p.The right to access family planning and safe motherhood and protection against sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS, should be available to all women, men and adolescents worldwide. Unfortunately these reproductive health rights do not come about automatically. Nor do they occur naturally with social or economic development. Governments do not spontaneously include these vital health rights and measures in their spending plans, even though there is a wealth of evidence to support the economic, social, health and human rights rationale in doing so. The most powerful tool to cut across opposition and to create a global mainstream movement for action is to have it enshrined within a United Nations (UN) declaration or programme of action. The UN is the one global body that represents the voice of nations and commands the respect of governments worldwide. Many of the economic and social transformations that have taken place globally in the last five decades have been significantly affected in their direction and shape by the work of the UN. (excerpt)