Your search found 144 Results

  1. 1
    389948

    Between the West and Asia: "Humanistic" Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War.

    Homei A

    East Asian Science, Technology and Society. 2016 Dec; 10(4):445-467.

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
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  2. 2
    385483

    Family planning in Latin America: The achievements of 50 years: Executive summary.

    Bertrand JT; Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [3] p. (FS-15-136; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This executive summary introduces the full report (See POPLINE record 337627) examining the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region.
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  3. 3
    337633

    Family planning in El Salvador: the achievements of 50 years.

    Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [22] p. (SR-15-118C; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. El Salvador has made enormous progress in terms of family planning over the past five decades. It has reduced fertility rates; it has developed a robust legal and regulatory framework for FP; it has allocated resources for procuring contraceptives for its population; it now offers information and contraceptive services to the entire population of the country with the active participation of civil society organizations, especially women’s organizations.
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  4. 4
    337632

    Family planning in Nicaragua: the achievements of 50 years.

    Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [24] p. (SR-15-118F; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Nicaragua has made significant progress in improving its macro-level primary health care indicators, reducing maternal mortality and increasing contraceptive prevalence. There has also been increased participation by the Instituto Nicaragense de Seguridad Social (INSS) in providing family planning services and commodities, thus reducing the burden on health ministry facilities. The government has shown its strong commitment to comprehensive services to improve the health of the population.
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  5. 5
    337630

    Family planning in Haiti: the achievements of 50 years.

    Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [28] p. (SR-15-118H; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. The family planning movement in Haiti began in the 1960s, only a short time after family planning activities had been initiated in many other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Initially, doctors and demographers worked together to encourage government policies around the issue and to begin private sector service provision programs in much the same way early family planning activities occurred elsewhere. Yet, in comparison with other countries within the region, Haiti’s progress on reproductive health has been slow.
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  6. 6
    337628

    Family planning in Colombia: the achievements of 50 years.

    Bertrand JT; Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [26] p. (SR-15-118A; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Family planning has become so deeply entrenched as a social norm in Colombia that it no longer constitutes the special area of interest that it did in the 1960s and 1970s. Nonetheless, challenges remain.
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  7. 7
    337627

    Family planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: the achievements of 50 years.

    Bertrand JT; Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [128] p. (TR-15-101; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This report examines the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. The current contraceptive prevalence rate (all methods) of 74 percent is among the highest of any region in the developing world. Many factors have contributed to the dramatic decline in fertility in the LAC region over the past 50 years: increased educational levels, improved economic conditions, decreased infant and child mortality, rapid urbanization, political stability, and changing cultural norms, among others. While recognizing the influence of these factors on fertility, what role did use of family planning play in fertility decline in the region? What lessons can be drawn for other developing countries committed to a development path that strengthens family planning services and improves health and living standards for their people? This report examines the specific role of family planning in accelerating fertility decline in the LAC region.
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  8. 8
    334316

    Global income inequality by the numbers: In history and now. An overview.

    Milanovic B

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, Development Research Group, Poverty and Inequality Team, 2012 Nov. [30] p. (Policy Research Working Paper No. 6259)

    The paper presents an overview of calculations of global inequality, recently and over the long-run as well as main controversies and political and philosophical implications of the findings. It focuses in particular on the winners and losers of the most recent episode of globalization, from 1988 to 2008. It suggests that the period might have witnessed the first decline in global inequality between world citizens since the Industrial Revolution. The decline however can be sustained only if countries’ mean incomes continue to converge (as they have been doing during the past ten years) and if internal (within-country) inequalities, which are already high, are kept in check. Mean-income convergence would also reduce the huge “citizenship premium” that is enjoyed today by the citizens of rich countries.
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  9. 9
    333333

    Outlook 30. UNAIDS outlook report 2011.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011. [236] p.

    30 years into the AIDS epidemic, 30 milestones, thoughts, images, words, artworks, breakthroughs, inspirations, and ideas in response.
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  10. 10
    333061

    Action on the social determinants of health: learning from previous experiences.

    Irwin A; Scali E

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2010. [52] p. (Discussion Paper Series on Social Determinants of Health No. 1)

    Today an unprecedented opportunity exists to improve health in some of the world's poorest and most vulnerable communities by tackling the root causes of disease and health inequalities. The most powerful of these causes are the social conditions in which people live and work, referred to as the social determinants of health (SDH). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) shape the current global development agenda. The MDGs recognize the interdependence of health and social conditions and present an opportunity to promote health policies that tackle the social roots of unfair and avoidable human suffering. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is poised for leadership in this process. To reach its objectives, however, the CSDH must learn from the history of previous attempts to spur action on SDH. This paper pursues three questions: (1) Why didn't previous efforts to promote health policies on social determinants succeed? (2) Why do we think the CSDH can do better? (3) What can the Commission learn from previous experiences -- negative and positive -- that can increase its chances for success? (Excerpt)
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  11. 11
    329878

    Reclaiming the ABCs: the creation and evolution of the ABC approach.

    Hardee K; Gribble J; Weber S; Manchester T; Wood M

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 2008. [16] p.

    This report was developed through review of the early literature on HIV/AIDS policies and programs in non-industrialized countries and of media material promoting prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in those countries. Material from the early days of the epidemic was difficult to obtain. Most materials were long ago archived or are in personal files in "basements". While the report focuses on the experiences of three countries, it also examines the early responses of international organizations to HIV in many other developing countries. Additional data were obtained using a snowball sampling technique through which the authors contacted people who had worked in HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. The pool of respondents is not intended to be exhaustive, but the respondents provide important voices of those working in the developing world at the beginning of the epidemic.
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  12. 12
    328533

    Reproductive and sexual rights: do words matter? [editorial]

    Gruskin S

    American Journal of Public Health. 2008 Oct; 98(10):1737.

    The 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development helped governments, the organs and agencies of the United Nations system, and nongovernmental organizations move beyond the confines of traditional family planning approaches. This watershed event fostered and defined subsequent international and national reproductive and sexual health policies and programs as well as global efforts to realize reproductive and sexual rights. However, moving beyond history, or the "archeology of Cairo" (as a participant at a meeting I recently attended called it), are we now simply using the language of the Cairo conference with little attention to the conceptual and operational implications of its words? Has the politically charged notion of rights with its attendant government responsibility and accountability succumbed to the less controversial notion of health? As the public health community recognized even before the Cairo consensus, barriers to reproductive and sexual health operate on a number of levels-including legal, social, cultural, political, financial, attitudinal, and practical -- and interact in complex ways. What rights add to this mix is a framework for programming and for action and a legal rationale for government responsibility-not only to provide relevant services but also to alter the conditions that create, exacerbate, and perpetuate poverty, deprivation, marginalization, and discrimination as these affect reproductive and sexual health. By fixing attention on the responsibility and accountability of governments to translate their international-level commitments into national and subnational laws, policies, programs, and practices that promote and do not hinder reproductive and sexual health, the actions of governments are open to scrutiny to determine their influences-both positive and negative-on reproductive and sexual health, including barriers that affect the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of reproductive and sexual health services, structures, and goods. Despite the framework that the Cairo conference helped put into place, work falling under the rubric of reproductive and sexual rights now includes everything from the provision of abortion services to the reduction of maternal mortality -- as though simply working on these issues is equal to working on rights. Consequently, one has to ask this: Are reproductive, and even sexual, rights becoming synonymous with reproductive, and sexual, health? Those who understand their work to be in the area of reproductive and sexual rights sorely need to discuss whether their efforts are aligned with the politics that underlie the words of the Cairo conference or whether, bluntly speaking, the politics are a historical artifact and it is simply time to move on. Bringing the political back into reproductive and sexual rights would require going beyond the technical dimensions of addressing reproductive and sexual health issues to the application of the norms and standards that are engaged by a human rights discourse. This includes attention to the basics of reproductive and sexual rights: the efforts that exist to ensure the sustained participation of affected communities; how discrimination that affects both vulnerability to ill health and access and use of services is being tackled; the extent to which any legal, political, and financial constraints are being addressed; how rights considerations are brought into policy and program design, implementation, and evaluation; and the existence of mechanisms that require government as well as intergovernmental and nongovernmental institution accountability. And so yes, in a word, words do matter. And they matter for the actions they inspire. (full-text)
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  13. 13
    328449
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization and its work. 1993.

    Bynum WF; Porter R

    American Journal of Public Health. 2008 Sep; 98(9):1594-7.

    In 1948, after its first World Health Assembly, the WHO took action to form a Secretariat in Geneva. It was given space for its initial years in the Palais des Nations, which had been the last home of the League of Nations. As stated in Chapter I of its Constitution, WHO was "to act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health work." This was a much broader scope than any other international agency in the orbit of the UN. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    328182

    Fatal misconception: the struggle to control world population.

    Connelly M

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.

    Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
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  15. 15
    321945

    Family planning and the World Bank in Jamaica.

    King T

    In: The global family planning revolution: three decades of population policies and programs, edited by Warren C. Robinson and John A. Ross. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 155-174.

    In Jamaica, as in many countries, the pioneers of family planning were men and women who sought to improve the well-being of their impoverished women compatriots, and who perhaps were also conscious of the social threats of rapid population growth. When, eventually, population control became national policy, the relationship between the initial private programs and the national effort did not always evolve smoothly, as the Jamaican experience shows (see box 10.1 for a timeline of the main events in relation to family planning in Jamaica). A related question was whether the family planning program should be a vertical one, that is, with a staff directed toward a sole objective, or whether it should be integrated within the public health service. These issues were not unique to Jamaica, but in one respect Jamaica was distinctive: it was the setting for the World Bank's first loan for family planning activities. Family planning programs entailed public expenditures that were quite different from the infrastructure investments for which almost all Bank loans had been made, and the design and appraisal of a loan for family planning that did not violate the principles that governed Bank lending at the time required a series of decisions at the highest levels of the Bank. These decisions shaped World Bank population lending for several years and subjected the Bank to a good deal of external criticism. For that reason, this chapter focuses on the process of making this loan. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    320487

    Vikings against tuberculosis: The International Tuberculosis Campaign in India, 1948 -- 1951.

    Brimnes N

    Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 2007 Summer; 81(2):407-430.

    Between 1947 and 1951 the Scandinavian-led International Tuberculosis Campaign tested more than 37 million children and adolescents for tuberculosis, and vaccinated more than 16 million with BCG vaccine. The campaign was an early example of an international health program, and it was generally seen as the largest medical campaign to date. It was born, however, as a Danish effort to create goodwill in war-ravaged Europe, and was extended outside Europe only because UNICEF in 1948 unexpectedly donated US $2 million specifically for BCG vaccination in areas outside Europe. As the campaign transformed from postwar relief to an international health program it was forced to make adaptations to different demographic, social, and cultural contexts. This created a tension between a scientific ideal of uniformity, on the one hand, and pragmatic flexibility on the other. Looking at the campaign in India, which was the most important non-European country in the campaign, this article analyzes three issues in more detail: the development of a simplified vaccination technique; the employment of lay-vaccinators; and whether the campaign in India was conceived as a short-term demonstration or a more extensive mass-vaccination effort. (author's)
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  17. 17
    319232

    Refusing to go away: Strategies of the women's rights movement.

    Jefferson LR

    Human Rights Dialogue. 2003 Fall; (10):33-34.

    The past decade has seen women's rights activists from every region of the world mobilize to use the international human rights system to raise awareness about and remedy the staggering levels of violence against women. Activists' most significant achievements include proving a state's failure to prevent or respond to domestic violence to be a human rights abuse; creating better fact-finding mechanisms to document violence against women; increasing the role of UN agencies in adopting and promoting strategies to combat gender-based violence; using public tribunals to create a public record of violence against women; improving state response to violence against women perpetrated by private actors; getting a range of gender-based and sexual violence in armed conflict codified as a war crime and a crime against humanity; identifying harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation (FGM), as violence against girls and women; defining and criminalizing at the national level the myriad forms of violence against women; raising overall public awareness that gender-based violence is a chronic human rights abuse; and supporting the efforts of more "mainstream" human rights organizations to integrate women's human rights into their work. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    319050
    Peer Reviewed

    Resistance and renewal: Health sector reform and Cambodia's national tuberculosis programme.

    Hill PS; Mao Tan Eang

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Aug; 85(8):631-636.

    Following the destruction of Cambodia's health infrastructure during the Khmer Rouge period (1975-1979) and the subsequent decade of United Nations sanctions, international development assistance has focused on reconstructing the country's health system. The recognition of Cambodia's heavy burden of tuberculosis (TB) and the lapse of TB control strategies during the transition to democracy prompted the national tuberculosis programme's relaunch in the mid-1990s as WHO-backed health sector reforms were introduced. This paper examines the conflicts that arose between health reforms and TB control programmes due to their different operating paradigms. It also discusses how these tensions were resolved during introduction of the DOTS strategy for TB treatment. (author's)
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  19. 19
    305199
    Peer Reviewed

    World population 1950-2000: perception and response.

    Demeny P; McNicoll G

    Population and Development Review. 2006; 32 Suppl:1-51.

    By the end of the twentieth century, although expansion of population numbers in the developing world still had far to run, the pace had greatly slowed: widespread declines in birth rates had taken place and looked set to continue. To what degree population policies played a significant role in this epochal transformation of demographic regimes remains a matter of conjecture and controversy. It seems likely that future observers will be impressed by the essential similarities in the path to demographic modernity that successive countries have taken in the last few centuries, rather than discerning a demographic exceptionalism in the most recent period--with achievement of the latter credited to deliberate policy design. But that eventual judgment, whatever it may be, needs to be based on an understanding of how demographic change over the last half-century has been perceived and the responses it has elicited--an exercise in political demography. Such an exercise, inevitably tentative given the recency of the events, is essayed in this chapter. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    304333

    Immunizations: three centuries of success and ongoing challenges [editorial]

    Feijo RB; Safadi MA

    Jornal de Pediatria. 2006; 82 Suppl(3):S1-S3.

    In the last few decades, immunization -- one of the greatest breakthroughs in health sciences -- has increasingly gained significant ground all over the world. Advances in general sciences, microbiology, pharmacology and immunology have, together with results of epidemiology and sociology studies, demonstrated the remarkable impact of vaccines on society and the importance of vaccination in health promotion and disease prevention. In the beginning of the 17th century, smallpox was one of the most devastating communicable diseases in the world; it affected most individuals before they reached adulthood, and had high mortality rates. Lady Mary Montagu, wife of the British ambassador in Istanbul at the time, observed that the disease could be avoided by using a technique adopted by Muslims, who inoculated dried pus from smallpox pustules obtained from an infected patient into the skin of healthy individuals. This procedure, known as "variolation," probably originated in China; later, it was taken to Western Europe. Although it led to several cases of death due to smallpox, it was used in England and in the United States until the beginning of investigations by British physician Edward Jenner, whose research results were published in the study Variolae Vaccinae in 1798. Dr. Jenner studied peasants who developed a benign condition known as "vaccinia" due to their contact with cowpox, and his investigation resulted in the development of the first immunization techniques. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    293683

    Evolution of national population policies since the United Nations 1954 World Population Conference.

    Mirkin B

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):297-328.

    Population policy did not figure prominently at the 1954 United Nations World Population Conference in Rome. It was a commonly held view at the time that "population matters" were in the personal and family sphere and thus, not an appropriate area of involvement for Governments. Nevertheless, some discussion took place on policies to reduce population growth in less developed regions, on policies to raise fertility in more developed regions, on the impact of population ageing and on the consequences of international migration for sending and receiving countries. This paper tracks Government's views and policies on population and development since the 1954 Rome Conference. Among other things, it considers the central role played by United Nations global population conferences in facilitating international cooperation and national government entrance into embracing population policies. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    293703

    Changing population paradigms post ICPD: policy and programme implications.

    Farah FM

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):141-163.

    World demographic growth at the time of the Rome Conference in 1954 was characterized by unprecedented high rates of natural increase. This was the consequence of the combined effect of faster declines in death rates and sustained high birth rates. As a result, world population would double from three to six billion between 1960 and 1999 and from 5 to 6 billion in just 12 years (1987-1999), while it had taken the world four times as much to double from 1.5 to 3 billion and nearly a millennium to reach the first billion. What triggered this growth were primarily unprecedented mortality declines, a better control of major killer diseases and increases in survival particularly in the developing countries (life expectancy increased from 41 to 65 years on average over the last three decades). With such unprecedented growth rates, the theory of demographic transition acquired particular policy significance in the late 1950s to raise a serious concern about the impact of current and projected growth rates both within countries and internationally at the economic, social and geopolitical levels. This theory would soon become the driving force behind all population policy objectives aimed at third world countries where governments were encouraged to formulate population policies, establish policy institutions and programme structures to implement family planning programmes, bring about smaller-sized families and help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    293727

    Population trends since 1954.

    Zlotnik H

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):111-140.

    At the end of 1951, in the first issue of the Population Bulletin, the United Nations published an article on the past and future growth of world population (United Nations, 1951). The article provided a "long-term view" of future population growth by projecting the population by groups of countries from 1950 to 1980. According to this first set of estimates and projections issued by the United Nations, the world population, which was estimated to be 2.4 billion in mid-1950, would increase by at least half a billion and at most 1.2 billion over the next 30 years, producing for 1980 a range of 3 billion to 3.6 billion people, with a "medium" value of 3.3 billion. A further scenario obtained by maintaining constant the vital rates estimated for the late 1940s produced a world population of 3.5 billion (table 1), The proceedings of the 1954 World Population Conference held in Rome included another set of population projections, updating the work published in 1951. The major difference between the two sets lies on an upward adjustment of the 1950 population of Asia that resulted in a world total closer to 2.5 billion and led to a larger population in 1980 (3.6 billion in the medium variant). Today, with the benefit of hindsight, we estimate that the world's population in 1950 was slightly over 2.5 billion and that it increased by 1.9 billion over the next 30 years, to reach 4.4 billion by 1980, a value higher than the highest projected at the time of the 1954 Conference. In reviewing past demographic trends, this paper will compare them with those expected by United Nations demographers in the 1950s and 1960s in order to understand better their assessment of how the demographic transition would proceed. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    293719

    Scenarios for the development of world population.

    Chamie J

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):69-90.

    For most of human history, life was especially brutal. The growth of world population was kept in check largely by famines, deadly diseases and wars. Living conditions were poor and death rates were high. Infant and child deaths and maternal mortality were common, and few reached 60 years of age. And prior to 1800, centenarians, those aged 100 or older, are not believed to have lived. As a result of high birth and death rates, world population grew slowly for most of the past. Two thousand years ago, world population is believed to have been around 300 million people. Near the close of the 15th century world population was approaching the half billion mark. And when Malthus wrote his essay on population at the end of the 18th century, world population had not yet reached the one billion mark. Up until the modern era, nearly all of the world's population lived off the countryside. A thousand years ago, a few percent of the world's population of roughly 300 million lived outside rural areas. Even in 1700, the proportion urban had changed little and only five cities had more than a half a million inhabitants: Istanbul, Tokyo, Beijing, Paris and London. By 1800, about three percent of the world's population of some 1 billion lived in cities or urban places. By 1900, about 15 percent of the world's population of 1.6 billion resided in urban areas and the number of cities with more than a half a million inhabitants had increased eight-fold. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    293798

    Globalisation and Pakistan's dilemma of development.

    Gardezi HN

    Pakistan Development Review. 2004 Winter; 43(4 Pt 1):423-440.

    Pakistan's development project that was initiated in the 1950s with a focus on creating a prosperous and equitable society, making the benefits of scientific advancement and progress available to all the people, got lost somewhere in the labyrinth of development fashions and econometric modelling learned in American universities and World Bank/IMF seminars. The latest of these fashions being eagerly followed by the economic managers of the state is the implementation of structural adjustments, termed "Washington Consensus" by some, flowing from the operative rules and ideological framework of neo-liberal globalisation. In practice these adjustments, euphemistically called reforms, have foreclosed the possibility of improving the condition of working masses, not only in Pakistan but globally, including the developed West. If Pakistan is to reclaim its original people-centred development project, it will have to set its own priorities of development in the context of indigenous realities shared in common with its South Asian neighbours. Following the globalisation agenda at the behest of the Washington-based IFIs will sink the country into ever greater debt and mass poverty. (author's)
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