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  1. 1
    070729

    The Africa syndrome. India confronts the spectre of a massive epidemic.

    McDonald H

    FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1992 Feb 20; 28-9.

    As the AIDS epidemic and HIV transmission in India increasingly resembles that observed in sub-Saharan Africa, Indian society's arrogant perception of invulnerability to the pandemic is proving to be considerably ill-conceived. The dimensions of the epidemic have multiplied greatly since AIDS was 1st identified among prostitutes in Madras, with the trends observed in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu being especially ominous. AIDS has forced Indian society and research professionals to acknowledge the existence of domestic prostitution, homosexuals, and drug users. While only 103 AIDS cases and 6,400 HIV infections have been officially identified, it is clear that these cases represent only a tiny fraction of the true extent of the epidemic in India. The government will therefore spend up to US$7.75 million on an anti-AIDS program aimed at ensuring secure blood supplies, and checking heterosexual transmission through education and the promotion of condoms. The program also targets IV-drug users and truck drivers for education and behavioral change. India is the 2nd country after Zaire to accept foreign loans for such a purpose. It will receive US$85 million over 5 years from the World Bank in addition to supplemental funds from the WHO and the U.S. Weak attempts, however, have been made to test blood supplies, with only 15% being tested in Tamil Nadu. A large gap also remains between health educators and needy target groups. Finally, while some top officials realize the need for immediate action against AIDS, broad public awareness and coping will come only after AIDS mortality begins to mount in the population.
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  2. 2
    070831

    Report of a WHO Consultation on the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Transmission in the Health Care Setting, Geneva, 11-12 April 1991.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. [3], 8 p. (WHO/GPA/DIR/91.5)

    The transmission of both Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health care settings causes concern among patients, health care workers, and national policymakers. This document reports recommendations from a consultative meeting on the issue organized by the World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS. The meeting was held at the request of member states to review risks of transmission of HBV and HIV in the health care setting, and to provide guidance on policies and strategies to minimize such risks. In order of declining incidence and likelihood, HBV and HIV may be transmitted from patient to patient, patient to worker, and worker to patient. The risk of infection depends on the prevalence of infected individuals in the population, the frequency of exposure to contaminated medical instruments, relative viral infectivity, and the concentration of virus in the blood. The risk of acquiring HBV from a needlestick exposure to blood of an infected patient is estimated at 7-30%, while less than 0.5% of health care workers exposed in similar fashion to HIV+ blood have become infected with HIV. General recommendations and specific measures for WHO and national authorities to adopt in the prevention of these infections are listed. Central to prevention is the adoption by health care workers of universal precautions which assume that all blood and certain bodily fluids are infectious. HBV vaccines for both health care workers and as a routine infant immunogen are recommended where appropriate. Routine and/or mandatory blood testing of workers or patients is not recommended, and is considered potentially counterproductive to AIDS control.
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  3. 3
    068455

    AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    Chatterjee A

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.
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  4. 4
    067795

    Report of the Global Blood Safety Initiative Meeting, Geneva, 16-17 May 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1988. 15 p. (WHO/GPA/DIR/88.9)

    Following up on a January, 1988, meeting at World Health Organization headquarters, this meeting was held to inform participants about the present status of blood transfusion systems worldwide, study obstacles to developing integrated systems, achieve consensus on the objectives, principles and activities of the Global Blood Safety Initiative and structure of a previously proposed consortium, and to endorse and launch the initiative. Objectives, principles, and consortium activities are presented in the report, followed by discussion of the organization and activities of the consortium secretariat. Evolution of the Global Blood Safety Initiative is also explained in the report, and results largely out of need for safe blood supplies in the face of AIDS. Instead of stressing long-term infrastructure development toward integrated blood transfusion services, priority was placed upon HIV prevention, with care to not link too closely in the public eye AIDS with hopes for strengthened blood transfusion services. Participants were keen to point out that the initiative will not fuel additional bureaucracy, and that patients is paramount in realizing initiative goals. Realistic targets must be set, and steady, gradual improvements should be expected. Where bilateral arrangements are concerned, support to countries should be provided in accordance with the national AIDS plans of each respective country. Linking country needs with available resources, the initiative would be a facilitating, integrating force.
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