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  1. 1

    Report of the eleventh meeting of the technical advisory group (Geneva, 7-8 March 1990).

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1990. 12 p. (WHO/CDD/90.33)

    Findings from the 11th meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of the Diarrheal Diseases Control Program are reviewed. Progress made in health services during 1988-1989 include training in supervisory skills for an estimated 17% of the staff and in case management for 11% of the staff, endorsal of breast feeding and rational drug use, 61 countries producing oral rehydration salts (ORS), a 60% access rate to ORS and 34% rate of use of oral rehydration therapy, increased communication activities, and improved assessment for diarrheal management. Major research progress includes determining the effectiveness of rice-based ORS, continued feeding, and breast feeding in diarrheal management. Revisions in research management include the utilization of multi- disciplinary research teams and the replacement of Scientific Working Groups (SWG) with experts to review research priorities, determine study methods, review proposals, and confer with investigators on research design. Research priorities are vaccine development and childhood diarrhea which involves case management research by employing clinical trials, epidemiology and disease prevention, and determining cost effectiveness and optimal delivery of intervention methods. 1995 goals are increased production of ORS, improved supervisory skills training, and improved case management of oral rehydration therapy. During 1988- 1989, the program had access to US$ 20.9 million. US$ 4.7 million carried over at the end of 1989 into 1990. The 1990-1991 overall budget was reduced by 26% because increased contributions were not acquired. Recommendations for the health services component of the program include program implementation which utilizes effective diarrheal assessment tools, focuses on lowering childhood mortality due to diarrhea in 24 countries, and correcting the misuse of antibiotics and antidiarrheal drugs; training for the medical profession in diarrheal management, improved training materials and additional training units; increased accessibility to ORS; improved communication which involves promoting diarrheal treatment in the educational system; and preventing diarrhea by encouraging breast feeding. Recommendations for research includes revised research management guidelines and close collaboration between TAG and investigators.
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  2. 2

    Investing in women: the focus of the '90s.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], [1990]. [2], 34 p.

    Women are the heart of development since they control most of the nonmoney economy including subsistence agriculture, child bearing and raising, as well as play an important part in the money economy. The status of women will be crucial in determining future population growth rates. The woman's dependence offered her some protection in return for her production of sons, leading to practices which have existed for centuries and are woven into society. In developing countries women tend to marry young: 50% in Africa, 40% in Asia, and 30% in Latin America are married by the age of 18. In most societies women's social and economic standing is closely related to child bearing. In 8 out of 9 cultures there is a preference for sons over daughters and parents expect little from a girl once she is married. Childbirth anywhere has its risks but in developing countries the risks are multiplied. The youngest and oldest mothers are the most at risk. Women are normally the collectors of water and firewood. Environmental degradation forces them on long strenuous trips to get these vital resources. Migration is a growing phenomenon in the developing world. 1 in 3 households are without man because of migration. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is having a dramatic impact on women and their children, especially in developing countries where there is a lack of information, advice and service. Most of the health problems in developing countries could be solved by a combination of prevention and cure which centers around women since they are the providers as well as the recipients of health care. Education is a key factor since the more a women receives, the better the chances are for her children's survival. By reducing women's work load and making labor more profitable, family size might decrease which would decrease the load further. Recommendations include publicizing contributions, increasing productivity, providing family planning and health care, and expanding education and equality of opportunity for women.
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