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EPI NEWSLETTER. 1979 May; 1(1):7.This table, based on information from the latest available (1975-79) Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization Form C vaccination Questionnaire submitted by the 30 PAHO Member Countries, presents vaccination schedules for 4 immunization: diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), poliomyelitis, measles, and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). For each vaccine, information is provided on the number of doses, the minimum and maximum age at 1st dose, the interval for subsequent doses (if applicable), and whether and when a booster dose is administered. Notation is also made as to whether vaccination is compulsory by law.
Planning for health and development: a strategic perspective for technical cooperation. Volume II. Technical background papers.
Washington, D.C., Family Health Care, 1979, Sep 13. 2 281 p.This volume is 1 of a series of Family Health Care Reports. Section I of Volume II gives a detailed rationale for comprehensive multisectoral planning for health. Definitions, theoretical models and arguments, and empirical documentation of intersectoral linkages and implications for health programming are taken up. This section is background material for section IV (Volume I)--planning for health elements of a strategic perspective for National Health Development. Included is a lengthy examination of the empirical evidence supporting intersectoral approaches to health and development programming. Section II of Volume II gives the framework for assessment of planning for health in less developed countries. Empirical and qualitative approaches to assessment are discussed. An introduction to the analytic approach is given under the empirical approach. Cross-country analysis, the health planning process and the distribution of wealth is discussed. Experiences of less-developed countries are given in the section on qualitative approach as are assistance efforts of the World Health Organization and the US Agency for International Development. Training in international health planning is also covered. This section is background material for section II (Volume I)--assessment of experiences in planning for health in less-developed countries. The results of an empirical approach to assessment are largely used as input to section III, B.1--experiences of less-developed countries. The results of the qualitative approach to assessment correspond to each and every section of the assessment findings (Section III.B) in Volume I. The bibliography provides a list of general reference works relevant to planning for health and development in the Third World.
[Unpublished] 1979. Paper prepared for the Technical Workshop on the Four Country Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Projects, New York, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1979. (Workshop Paper No. 2) 10 p.An integrated health care system which combined the maternal/child health with other services was undertaken in the Yozgat Province of Turkey from 1972-77. The objective was to train midwives in MCH/FP and orient their activities to socialization. The first 2 years of the program was financed by UNFPA. 52 health stations were completed and 18 more are under construction. The personnel shortage stands at 33 physicians, 21 health technicians, 30 nurses, and 67 midwives. Yozgat Province is 75% rural and has about a 50% shortage of roads. The project was evaluated initially in 1975 and entailed preproject information studies, baseline health practices and contraceptive use survey, dual record system, and service statistics reporting. The number of midwives, who are crucial to the program, have increased from an average 115 in 1975 to 160 in 1979. Supervisory nurses are the link between the field and the project managers. Their number has decreased from 17 to 6. Until 1977 family planning service delivery depended on a handful of physicians who distributed condoms and pills. The Ministry of Health trained women physicians in IUD insertions. The crude death rate in 1976 was 13.2/1000; the crude birth rate was 42.7/1000. The crude death rate in 1977 was 14.8/1000; birth rate, 39.9/1000. Common child diseases were measles, enteritis, bronchopneumonia, otitis, and parasitis.
Primary health care and traditional medicine: considering the background of changing health concepts in Africa.
Social Science and Medicine. 1979 Sep; 13B(3):175-82.The stress placed on utilizing traditional medical practitioners in fulfilling the basic health needs for citizens of developing countries and the reasons behind the recent enthusiastic endorsement by international agencies and national governments of the primary health care strategy were examined in reference to Africa. In attempting to provide low cost alternative health care systems in Africa, considerable attention was given to developing schemes for integrating traditional medical practitioners into the health care system. Despite these efforts, little integration has occurred. The development of a collaborative form of integration between these two types of medical systems, except in such areas as the utilization of traditional birth attendants, is impossible. In the treatment and diagnosis of disease Western medicine demands the acceptance of the scientific etiology of disease, and this view clashes with traditional conceptions of disease etiology. Under these conditions the only type of integration that can occur is a structural one in which traditional medicine is placed in a subordinate position to Western medicine. Currently, this problem is reflected by the fact that most programs stress the recruitment of young men and women from rural areas for training programs in which only Western oriented medical concepts are taught. Despite the fact that the need to improve the health status of rural populations has been recognized for a long time, concerted efforts to deal with the problem have only recently been undertaken. These recent efforts are economically motivated. The economic value of rural populations as a source for fulfilling the labor needs of urban residents and as a market for the consumer goods produced by urban dwellers has only recently been realized. In order to preserve this labor and market resource, the health and well-being of rural dwellers must now be promoted. Furthermore, the initial emphasis on community involvement in health related decision making has all but disappeared. The seriousness of the committment of agencies and governments to promote community development must, therefore, be questioned.