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  1. 1

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Evaluation Brief.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016. 24 p.

    This evaluation focuses on how UNFPA performed in the area of family planning during the period covered by the UNFPA Strategic Plan 2008-2013. It provides valuable insights and learning which can be used to inform the current UNFPA family planning strategy as well as other relevant programmes, including UNFPA Supplies (2013-2020). All the countries where UNFPA works in family planning were included, but the evaluation focuses on the 69 priority countries identified in the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning as having low rates of contraceptive use and high unmet needs. The evaluation took place in 2014-2016 and was conducted by Euro Health Group in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute Netherlands. It involved a multidisciplinary team of senior evaluators and family planning and sexual and reproductive health and rights specialists, which was supervised and guided by the Evaluation Office in consultation with the Evaluation Reference Group. The outputs include a thematic evaluation report, an evaluation brief and country case study notes for Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Expanding Concern for Women's Health in Developing Countries. The Case of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Saliba M; Zurayk H

    Women's Health Issues. 2010 May-Jun; 20(3):171-177.

    Background: Women's health is still largely associated with the notion of reproduction in developing countries despite a more varied disease burden, including noncommunicable conditions resulting from consequences of changing epidemiologic and demographic patterns on women's health. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease data base is used to derive for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) cause-specific rates of death and of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by age for adult women, and percent of total deaths and total DALYs for women in the reproductive ages, as related to maternal conditions and to three selected noncommunicable conditions, namely, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neuropsychiatry conditions. Inequalities by country income category are examined. Results: Maternal health conditions still form a substantial component of the disease burden, with an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease and cancer starting in the late reproductive years and beyond. The burden of neuropsychiatric conditions is also high during the reproductive years, reflecting possibly the stress of multiple roles of women as well as stress of war and conflict that permeate the EMR. Women in low- to middle-income countries suffer more from maternal health conditions and less from neuropsychiatry conditions than women in high-income countries. Conclusion: The wider disease burden of women should be addressed making use of available reproductive health services taking special account of interactions between reproductive and noncommunicable conditions for better health of women during and beyond reproduction. Better measures of the burden of illness should be developed. There is a special need for improved health information systems in the EMR.
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  3. 3

    34 Million Friends campaign passes $1 million mark.

    Population 2005. 2003 Jun; 5(2):16.

    The founders of the grassroots campaign “34 Million Friends of UNFPA” announced May 1 that it had raised $1 million to support the United Nations Population Fund, mostly in small donations. More than 100,000 Americans have contributed to the campaign to help replace funds withheld by the United States Administration last July. “This campaign highlights the power of individuals to make a difference,” said Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, UNFPA executive director. “It also shows that the American people support the right of all women to have quality health care and to be able to plan their families.” UNFPA will use the campaign’s first million dollars to make pregnancy and childbirth safer for women; reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS; equip hospitals with essential supplies; support adolescents and youth; and prevent and treat obstetric fistula, a debilitating condition that results from obstructed labor. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Understanding the links: globalization, health sector reform, gender and reproductive health.

    Evers B; Juarez M

    New York, New York, Ford Foundation, 2003. [45] p.

    The connections between globalization and women’s reproductive health and rights are not straightforward, and as yet, there is little systematic evidence exploring these linkages. The following paper will examine more closely what is meant by globalization and attempt to analyze its broad implications for women’s health and well-being, albeit largely from first principles. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Cairo commitment must be honored.

    POPLINE. 2003 May-Jun; 25:3, 4.

    The president of the Population Institute contends that it would be "not only unacceptable but also morally reprehensible for the United States to back away" from commitments toward universal access to family planning and reproductive health. In testimony submitted to the foreign operations subcommittee of the House of Representatives Appropriations Committee, Werner Fornos, president of the Population Institute, was referring to apparent efforts by the Bush administration to reverse United States support of the Cairo Program of Action from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    First regional meeting in Honduras.

    Groennings S

    Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1997 Oct; 3(4):3-4.

    The Alliance held its first Regional Seminar in Central America July 2-5,1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. This was the first meeting held within the framework of the two- year Alliance program in Latin America supported by the Commission of the European Union. The theme was "Civil- Military Intervention Strategies for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean." (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Bush's other war: the assault on women's reproductive and sexual health and rights.

    International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]

    New York, New York, IWHC, 2003 Feb. 7 p.

    Internationally and domestically, in our courts and in our schools, at the UN and on Capitol Hill, it is no exaggeration to say that the White House is conducting a stealth war against women. This war has devastating consequences for social and economic development, democracy, and human rights—and its effects will be felt by women and girls worldwide. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Making childbirth safer through promoting evidence-based care.

    Global Health Council

    Washington, D.C., Global Health Council, 2002 May. 20 p. (Technical Report)

    This document includes the following chapters: Towards an Evidence-Based Approach to Decision Making; Reducing Maternal Mortality Through Evidence-Based Treatment of Eclampsia; Reducing Postpartum Hemorrhage: Routine Use of Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor; The WHO Reproductive Health Library (RHL) Better Births Initiative: A Programme for Action in Middle- and Low-Income Countries; and Using Evidence to Save the Lives of Mothers.
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  9. 9

    Updated guidelines for UNFPA policies and support to special programmes in the field of women, population and development.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Special Unit for Women, Population and Development

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr. [2], 8 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been mandated to integrate women's concerns into all population and development activities. Women's status affects and is affected by demographic variables such as fertility, maternal mortality, and infant mortality. Women require special attention to their needs as both mothers and productive workers. In addition to integrating women's concerns into all aspects of its work, the Fund supports special projects targeted specifically at women. These projects have offered a good starting point for developing more comprehensive projects that can include education, employment, income generation, child care, nutrition, health, and family planning. UNFPA will continue to support activities aimed at promoting education and training, health and child care, and economic activities for women as well as for strengthening awareness of women's issues and their relationship to national goals. Essential to the goal of incorporating women's interests into all facets of UNFPA programs and projects are training for all levels of staff, participation of all UNFPA organizational units, increased cooperation and joint activities with other UN agencies, and more dialogue with governmental and nongovernmental organizations concerned with the advancement of women. Specific types of projects to be supported by UNFPA in the period ahead are in the following categories: education and training, maternal health and child care, economic activities, awareness creation and information exchange, institution building, data collection and analysis, and research.
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  10. 10

    Final reports, 98th and 99th meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., 27 September 1986 and 22-26 June 1987. XXXII meeting of the Directing Council of PAHO, XXXIX meeting, WHO Regional Committee for the Americas, Washington, D.C., 21-25 September 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization

    Washington, D.C., 1987. 136 p. (Official Document No. 219)

    The 98th and 99th Meetings of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization, the XXXII Meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization, and the XXXIX Meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO) Committee for the Americas were all held in Washington, D.C., between 9/86 and 9/87. This document contains the final reports of these conferences, including lists of all participants, and complete texts of all resolutions. The 99th Meeting resulted in Resolution VI, urging member countries to implement plans to control Aedes albopictus implicated in dengue, yellow fever, and california encephalitis. Resolution VII on Women, Health and Development, urging member nations to improve public and private comprehensive health care for women, and calling for increased participation of women in professional posts and representative roles within the organization; Resolution VIII, on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; and Resolution XII on AIDS Prevention and Control, which called for a WHO Special Program on AIDS and urged member countries to increase efforts at prevention and control, to provide information to WHO, and to permit free international travel for infected people. The XXXII Meeting contained Resolution IX on Women, Health and Development; Resolution X on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination; Resolution XI on the Coordination of Social Security and Public Health Institutions; and Resolution XII on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas.
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  11. 11

    Making the transition work for women in Europe and Central Asia.

    Lazreg M

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1999 Dec. viii, 113 p. (World Bank Discussion Paper No. 411; Europe and Central Asia Gender and Development Series)

    This collection of papers was selected from the proceedings of the World Bank conference held on June 7-8, 1999 in Washington District of Colombia. The conference entitled, "Making the Transition Work for Women in Europe and Central Asia," underlined the importance of gender as a factor influencing change during the shift from a command to a market economy. Women, who were invited to the conference, from Europe spoke directly to the World Bank about their problems and to make suggestions for action. In addition, scholars from the US and Britain were also invited to express their views on the gender dimension of transition. It was pointed out that the transition is taking place without the input of women, who are consequently suffering from the change. The participants also agreed the changes also caused men to engage in domestic violence, thus causing additional problems for women. The feminization of poverty and trafficking in women were also identified as new problems that demand to be addressed. In view of these problems, the participants advised that reforms were necessary but should proceed with caution.
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  12. 12

    Responding to victims of domestic violence including dispelling popular myths.

    Best K

    Network. 2001; 21(2):13.

    In many settings, domestic violence is accepted by both women and men, and will only be reduced as basic human rights are recognized. Since many health care workers do not have the time, training, resources, or support to help victims of domestic violence, the WHO recommends several ways that they may be able to perform their duties at a minimum. The provider's first priority should be to evaluate the woman's safety in terms of risk of recurrence of violence, adverse reproductive health outcomes, or death through homicide or suicide. They should also keep in mind the credo "do no harm." This includes not blaming a woman for the domestic violence she has suffered. In general, a provider who wishes to take the first step of trying to identify victims of domestic violence should have a specific goal either to give better care, counseling, or refer the victim to the appropriate services. One source of guidance on integrating gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health is the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere newsletter. In the winter 2001 and summer 2000 newsletters, it describes how to create a protocol for implementing screening and services for victims of domestic violence and tells how to create a referral network and begin implementing client screening and staff training, respectively.
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  13. 13

    A charade of concern: the abandonment of Colombia's forcibly displaced. [Falsa inquietud: el abandono de los colombianos desplazados por la fuerza]

    Myers H; Sommers M

    New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 1999 May. 24 p.

    The armed conflict in Colombia has forced more than 1.5 million Colombian citizens to flee their homes and communities. Caught in a nightmare of violent conflict with no prospects for reconstructing their former lives, hundreds of thousands of mostly rural peasants have found no option but to join the ranks of the internally displaced. It is noted that despite the extraordinary dimensions of the displacement phenomenon, the issue has remained a silent crisis. During November 29-December 10, 1998, the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children sent a delegation to Colombia to assess the conditions of women, children and adolescents uprooted by war and violence. The objectives of the delegation were to: 1) report on the scale of the displacement crisis; 2) determine to what extent the specific needs of women and children were being addressed by the government and international humanitarian relief; and 3) raise awareness among policymakers and among donor agencies of the status, rights and needs of women and children. Overall, the delegation found evidence of a seriously deprived displaced population which receives alarmingly low levels of humanitarian support and only minimal recognition of their plight from national and international agencies and governments. Thus, this paper also provides recommendations for ameliorating this crisis.
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Monitoring emergency obstetric services in Malawi.

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2001 Nov; 9(18):191.

    In 1997 UN International Children's Fund, WHO, and UN Population Fund developed guidelines for monitoring obstetric services, offering relevant process indicators which used proxy measures for maternal mortality, because counting deaths had been highly inaccurate. The Malawi Safe Motherhood Project covers half the country's population of 5 million and was the first large project to adopt the use of the recommended indicators within routine monitoring procedures, albeit with significant adaptation. Development of the monitoring process required: a needs assessment, including identification of sources of data and definition of terms, such as for obstetric conditions; development of tools for data collection: and actual operations research. The research considered patient flow in obstetric clinics; recording of complications; and identification of maternal deaths, referral systems and the origin of patients, in order to determine the catchment populations for each service point. Subsequently, when the new monitoring system was deemed to be feasible and effective, training programs were conducted by trainers from each district, and information was disseminated. The intention is that the Safe Motherhood information system training modules will eventually be incorporated into all basic and in-services training for maternity staff. Introduction of the indicators in Malawi was characterized by wide consultation, systematic clarification of all definitions, rigorous testing and use of already established systems. All of these steps were required to gain support and motivate staff involved in data collection and analysis. (full text)
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  15. 15

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children


    The Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children is one of the leading advocacy and expert resource organizations speaking out on behalf of refugee and displaced women, children, and adolescents around the world. However, there was a growing concern among women working in refugee and human rights organizations that refugee women and children had specific rights that were not being recognized or respected. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) released its Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women in 1991 to address a growing concern that the protection needs of refugee women were not being met in the field. The Women's Commission serves as a watchdog and an expert resource, offering solutions and providing technical assistance. Professional staff travel to refugee camps, detention centers, and slum areas to conduct field research and technical training and to convene meetings. In addition, the Women's Commission sends fact-finding delegations of professional women to meet with refugee women and children around the world and learn firsthand of needs and conditions. The Women's Commission has proven effective by taking the lead in advocating and helping to develop the Immigration and Naturalization Service's Guidelines for the Adjudication of Refugee Children's Asylum Claims. It also was a catalyst in the establishment of the Bosnian Women's Fund. In addition, reproductive health services for refugees have improved significantly since the Women's Commission 's 1994 groundbreaking survey.
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  16. 16

    Violence against women (VAW): a key reproductive health concern.

    Tharan C

    FEEDBACK. 1999; 25(1-2):1-4.

    This article discusses violence against women (VAW) as a major reproductive health issue. VAW is now recognized as a violation of human rights and considered a priority public health problem. Serious physical and psychological complications have been attributed to such violence which include unwanted pregnancies, gynecological disorders, disabilities, depression, suicide attempts and other similar patterns. In response to this issue, WHO seeks to establish effective strategies together with other organizations, for preventing violence and decreasing the harm done on abused women. Moreover, a number of actions were recommended at a planning exercise in India, which include sensitizing the medical community to the problem of VAW and training them to recognize it, conducting sensitive action research, and adopting collective strategies such as campaigns against rape and against alcoholism. An outstanding example of a government health sector response is the One Stop Crisis Center: Inter-Agency Management of Battered Women, Rape Survivors and Child Abuse, which was implemented in hospitals in Malaysia. Although the center has been acknowledged as an innovative approach, it has yet to undergo a systematic evaluation and needs to address some pressing issues such as the lack of trained social workers and forensic medical officers.
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  17. 17

    Tajikistan: STD survey results.

    Jamalova M

    ENTRE NOUS. 1999 Spring; (42):12.

    A survey on the sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence in the rural region of Chatlon was conducted by the Republican Reproductive Health Center as part of the agreement between the Government of Tajikistan and WHO for the implementation of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) project "Improving Reproductive Health Services and Access to Family Planning." Some 1034 women answered the questionnaire on all aspects of STDs; 400 women were physically examined, and 200 blood specimens were tested for syphilis, hepatitis B and C, and HIV. 75.7% of the examined cases revealed a variety of STDs: trichomoniasis (25.3%), candidosis (17.9%), chlamydia trachomatis (14.9%), syphilis (5.6%), gonorrhea (.2%), and hepatitis B virus (.2%). STDs were most commonly found in the 21-39 age group; the lowest rate (1.89% of the cases) was found among women with a high educational level. Investigations also showed a low awareness of STDs among the population: 72% of those questioned knew nothing about STDs, while 62.8% of all housewives in the survey group knew nothing to prevent STDs. Furthermore, STD screening of the 17-20 age group revealed that 30% had genital skin changes, while 77.7% of the 19-20 age group had vaginal discharges. The results confirmed that there was a high prevalence of STDs in Tajikistan, suggesting that there was a need to promote urgent social and medical remedies. Three main goals for combating STDs are outlined: 1) to improve quality of life, 2) to decrease the risk of infection through primary prevention, and 3) to diagnose and provide early treatment to people who are infected with curable forms of STDs.
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  18. 18

    Health services for women at the milk posts. Meeting the needs: Mexico.

    FORUM. 1996 Dec; 12(2):7-8.

    Community milk distribution posts are places where poor families with children under age 12 years can buy milk at subsidized prices. The centers are run by a social service agency called Liconsa and are located in marginalized neighborhoods around Mexico City. MEXFAM, the International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate in Mexico, offers health services to women through 25 of these centers. Women who visit milk centers can therefore conveniently have their blood pressure, weight, and height measured; receive vaccines, parasite treatment, diabetes screening, and family planning information; and obtain contraceptive pills, injectables, and condoms while they pick up their milk. Counselors are on site. Referrals for other health services and contraceptive methods are made to the MEXFAM Community Clinic and MEXFAM's Medical Services Center as needed. Each site provides services to approximately 250 women.
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  19. 19

    [Resolution No.] 47/95. Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [16 December 1992].

    United Nations. General Assembly


    This document contains the text of a 1992 resolution of the UN General Assembly on implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. The resolution calls for an improved pace in the implementation of the Strategies because the cost of failing to implement the Strategies would include slowed economic and social development, inadequate use of human resources, and reduced progress. Thus, governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations are urged to implement the recommendations, and member states are asked to give priority to programs which improve women's employment, health, and education (especially literacy). The central role of the Commission on the Status of Women is reaffirmed, and the Commission is asked to pay particular attention to women in the least developed countries. Other issues which require urgent attention include promoting the total integration of women in the development process and redressing socioeconomic inequities at the national and international levels. The Secretary-General is asked to perform specific tasks including the continued updating of the "World Survey on the Role of Women in Development."
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  20. 20

    Ford Foundation focuses attention on women's well-being and community participation.

    Burris MA

    CHINA POPULATION TODAY. 1995 Aug; 12(3-4):34.

    By the 1990s, the Ford Foundation's longstanding concern with issues of population and development had evolved into support for programs emphasizing reproductive health. In 1991, the Foundation established such a program in China to which it has contributed over a million dollars. The program seeks to support social science research, to assist community-based initiatives that increase participation in the design and implementation of reproductive health policies, and to promote discussions of the ethical and legal context. In recognition of the role of lifelong influences on health, program support is not strictly limited to the reproductive period and emphasizes action research which analyzes health conditions and tests ways to improve them. The types of specific programs supported include those which seek ways to improve the participation of men in family planning, which tackle reproductive tract infections, and which address problems specific to women. Support was also given to follow-up activities for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and to the participation of Chinese women in the 1995 World Conference on Women. Beneficiaries include government agencies, research institutes, training centers, and nongovernmental organizations.
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  21. 21

    Action for the 21st century: reproductive health and rights for all. Summary report of recommended actions on reproductive health and rights of the Cairo ICPD Programme of Action, September 1994.

    Alcala MJ

    New York, New York, Family Care International, 1994 Oct. [8], 45 p.

    Family Care International has put together this report summarizing specific areas of action and responsibility agreed upon at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The program of action is a blueprint for future planning, dialogue, and action. Each section of this summary report lists key chapter and paragraph references to the original program of action and fundamental bases, goals, and priority actions needed in the area of reproductive health and rights to achieve social justice, equity, and quality of life for all. The sections are specific areas of action. Enabling Conditions for Reproductive Health involves empowering women and promoting gender, equality and equity, eliminating discrimination against the girl child (e.g., female genital mutilation), ensuring male responsibilities and participation, and achieving universal education. The section entitled Affirming Reproductive Health and Reproductive Rights addresses defining reproductive health and reproductive rights and guiding principles. Championing Reproductive Health for All is the title of the next section. Its subtopics include achieving universal access, women's health and safe motherhood, sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, and addressing the AIDS pandemic. The section entitled Ensuring Coverage, Utilization, and Quality of Reproductive Health Services encompasses improving quality of care, service utilization and satisfaction, and training and program management and mobilizing public awareness and support. The last section, Mobilizing the Resources for Action, addresses advancing the contributions of technology, research and development, financing reproductive health, partners cooperating for development, and following up on commitments.
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  22. 22

    Immediate and growing needs for help to a fragile new democracy: health in the Russian Federation with emphasis on children and women. Report of a UNICEF / WHO collaborative mission with the participation of UNFPA, UNDP, and WFP, 17 February - 2 March 1992.

    UNICEF; World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1992 Mar 17. [2], 45, [19] p.

    From February 17 to March 2, 1992, the World Health Organization and UNICEF conducted a fact-finding mission to the Russian Federation to assess the health of the population, particularly of women and children. These international agencies found a unique situation in which economic adjustment to a market economy has created shortages in this developed nation similar to those encountered in developing countries. After an introductory section, the second section of this report provides background information on the Russian Federation, its economic situation, social protection mechanisms, and social statistics. Section 3 provides an assessment of the state of the health services, immunization programs, pharmaceuticals and equipment, nutrition, and the food situation. The next section discusses the organization of the public school system which may be used to provide nutritional supplements and health education. The rapid decline in environmental quality is then discussed, and examples are provided of some of the effects of this deterioration. The sixth section briefly mentions the three types of nongovernmental organizations available for partnerships and strategic alliances with international donors. Section 7 summarizes the recommendations of the mission. Six areas of assistance (each with several related recommendations) were identified: 1) to support those activities which will allow economic transition to be sensitive to the needs of vulnerable groups and social issues; 2) to provide emergency supplies to the health system through international channels and to foster the rapid rehabilitation of selected national production and distribution systems; 3) to provide technical assistance for the restructuring of the health system; 4) to establish monitoring systems to identify and protect vulnerable groups; 5) to engender support for donor coordination and the facilitation of international assistance; and 6) to support nongovernmental organizations and private partnerships as they attempt to strengthen social safety nets. A basic budget (which totals US $164 million and is separated into urgent and priority needs) is provided. Annexed information includes the construction and utilization of a food basket to monitor food prices, data on breastfeeding, and the highest priority needs for vaccines, drugs, and supplies.
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  23. 23

    Cairo conference galvanizes world opinion on reproductive health. Setting priorities for the future.

    ALTERNATIVES. 1994 Oct; (2):1, 3.

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in September 1994 capitalized on a growing recognition of the integral relationship between family planning and the larger issues of reproductive health, education, status of women, and development, and made several recommendations to that effect. Many countries in Asia and the Near East region have begun to incorporate the concept of reproductive health into their existing family planning and government health care services, but are experiencing difficulties in implementing the concept in an integrated way. These countries also have problems providing couples with information on reproductive health and providing information on safe, affordable contraception. Operations research (OR) can help broaden the relationship between family planning, reproductive health, and development, and help governments identify the current and future needs of their client populations and make informed decisions on ways to improve the quality of services. OR can also help identify ways to provide the information on reproductive health and family planning that can be a basis for better communication between partners. For example, in Indonesia and Bangladesh, OR is helping to find ways to improve access to family planning information and services, village education for girls, and employment opportunities for young women through cooperatives, credit unions, and NGOs.
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  24. 24

    Curb on population growth needed urgently, U.N. says.

    Lewis P

    NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 Apr 30; A12.

    The UN Population Fund's urgent plea for a sustained and concerted program to curb population growth in developing countries is reported. The reasons were to reduce poverty and hunger and to protect the earth's resources. The Fund released current world population figures which place 1992 population at 5.48 billion and project growth to 10 billion in 2050 with a leveling at 11.6 billion in 2150. These figures are 1 billion beyond projections made in 1980. The current rate of growth is at 97 million/year until 2000, 90 million/year until 2025, and 61 million/year until 2050. This rate of growth is the fastest the world has ever experienced. 34% of the rise will occur in Africa, and 97% in developing countries. The projected consequence of this growth is a continued migration to cities, increased hunger and starvation and malnutrition, and an increased pressure on the world's food, water, and other natural resources. This effect amounts to almost crisis conditions which places the world at great risk for future ecological and economic catastrophe. Food production has already lagged behind population growth in 69 of 102 developing countries between 1978-89. An urgent new campaign is called for to promote smaller families, better access to contraception, and better education and health care for women in developing countries. Women's status needs to be raised to allow for women being given property rights and improved access to labor markets. If the effort is successful, the population growth within the next decade could be reduced by 1.5-2 billion. Currently at least 300 million women do no have access to safe and reliable forms of contraception. The number of very poor has risen from 944 million in 1970 to 1.1 billion in 1985. The former strategy of urbanization and rising incomes have been found to be an unnecessary precondition for reducing family size. Poor countries, such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, have nonetheless shown sharp fertility declines with appropriate population policies, e.g., fertility dropped from 6.3 children/women in 1965 to 2.2 children/women in 1987. There have also been similar declines in fertility in China, Cuba, Indonesia, Tunisia and other poor countries. The agency's current budget is $225 million a year, and has been functioning without US aid since the 1976 ban over abortions in China.
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  25. 25

    International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 64 p.

    The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
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